9X6 – Week 3

I would like you to publish a 500-word annotated bibliography of 3 primary and 3 secondary sources you might like to use in your dissertation. Use the tools you learned about in the mini-lecture and from Helen Beardsley and write a reflection of how you found the sources and how you might use them in a dissertation. Apply relevant insights from this week’s readings.  Click here to see this guidance about how to do an annotated bibliography produced by the University of Leeds.

This will help you get ready for assignment 1

Please make sure you’ve uploaded your post by 11th February

55 thoughts on “9X6 – Week 3”

  1. 1) Klemperer, Victor, I Shall Bear Witness The Diaries of Victor Klemperer 1933-41, (Modern Library, 1999)

    This is a diary kept by Victor during the uprising of the Third Reich.

    2) Noakes, Jeremy & Pridham, Geoffrey, Nazism 1919 – 1945 Volume 1: The Rise to Power 1919 – 1934 & Volume 2: State, Economy and society 1933 – 1939, (University of Exeter, 2000)

    The two volumes show the uprising of the Third Reich and the use of propaganda they used for their campaign.

    3) Welch, David, Propaganda and the German Cinema 1933 – 1945, (Bloomsbury Academic, 2001)

    This book shows the effects that Nazi Germany had on films. This book includes notes on famous films ”Ohm Kruger” and ”Der Ewige Jude”.

    4) Another source I will be using is https://germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/sub_docs.cfm?section_id=13.

    This has primary sources from 1933 to 1945.

    5) The following source is https://research.calvin.edu/german-propaganda-archive/ww2era.htm

    This has speeches from the Nazi period and includes posters and material on propaganda.

    6) Hilton, Christopher, Hilter’s Olympics: The 1936 Berlin Olympic Games, (the History Press, 2006)

    This is about the Olympics games in Germany and the propaganda he used to avoid being caught as racist, and the propaganda he used.

    Some of the sources were recommended to me. Others I found by researching Google Scholar.

    I will be using these sources a lot. Some of them have documents, posters, speeches and accounts from the time of the event. These will be very useful for me and set me up to start my dissertation.

    1. This is a good selection of primary and secondary sources that will form a decent starting point. Methodologically, you could look at Dobson/ Ziemann (eds), Reading Primary sources (trhere is a chapter on diaries). There is a pretty decent summary of what to do when analysing propaganda posters here: https://www.historyskills.com/source-criticism/interpretation/propaganda-posters/ as well as here:

      In terms of secondary sources, there is some more by Welch on Nazi propaganda generally (also check JStor!).

      You should also think about how we might be able to assess the impact of propaganda and what the problems might be.

  2. Annotated bibliography: Logistics in the Thirty Years’ War

    Secondary sources

    Wilson, Peter. H.. The Thirty Years’ War: Europe’s Tragedy. Harvard: Harvard University Press, 2009.
    A book about the Thirty Years’ War provides general information about the time and a topic of my research. The book talks about the war from the period shortly before the war and shortly after to set the context. The perspective of it is mostly the political sphere, without much focus on the military details.

    Croxton, Derek. “A Territorial Imperative? The Military Revolution, Strategy and Peacemaking in the Thirty Years War.” War in History 5, no. 3 (1998): 253–79. http://www.jstor.org/stable/26007296.

    A very innovative article on the topic of logistics, re-examining the military revolution theory debated in Rogers’ Military Revolution Debate. Probably the closest to my own research. The article focuses on military campaigns throughout the war and examines strategic moves the commanders made. The article provides not only a historical view to analyse, but also more potential sources to read.

    Rogers, C.J., ed. (1995). The Military Revolution Debate: Readings on the Military Transformation of Early Modern Europe (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge, 1995.
    This long and thorough volume focuses on multiple things The general history of the Thirty Years’ War, the theory of military revolution that happened between 1560-1660 (by M. Roberts), and the historiography of this theory. The book is my main source of information for my research, due to the thorough examination of the changes in military tradition in Europe and a wide range of perspectives.

    Primary sources

    Wilson, Peter H.. The Thirty Years War: a sourcebook. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.
    A sourcebook for Wilson’s The Thirty Years’ War: Europe’s Tragedy. Contains many types of translated primary sources. Mainly correspondence, but also official documents and orders. Useful for double-checking the facts in his work and analysing his interpretation of the sources. The sourcebook is particularly useful in my dissertation for its battle reports and logistics reports.

    Helfferich, Tryntje. The Thirty Years War: a documentary history. Indianapolis: Hackett Pub. Co., 2009.
    This book provides further primary sources for my research. It is meant for both students and casual readers. Its contents further widen the scope of information to analyse. There are many types of sources in the book and the general focus is more on political matters but still contains important information about European armies.

    Mortimer, Geoff. Eyewitness accounts of the Thirty Years War, 1618-48. New York: Palgrave, 2002.
    A collection of translated bibliographies and other various accounts of all different kinds of people from the Thirty Years’ War. Especially useful due to accounts of soldiers talking about their life on the march, in an army camp, and a battle. Important due to the necessity to analyse a different perspective on life in the military.

    1. You have identified some useful secondary sources – some that will give you a broad overview of the topic and others discussing the wider debate concerning the military revolution (although see also Jeremy Black on that). Perhaps try to focus in now on more detailed, specific studies that will allow you to concentrate on Sweden and Spain. With Sweden you should be able to locate quite a few useful works, especially related to Gustavus Adolphus, and the tactics they developed, including the use of mercenaries. But you’ll need to balance that with works on Spain. Try also to ensure you focus on military tactics – there is a wealth of information on the war itself but keep your key research questions in mind.

      Some nice primary sources here too but, again, what is the focus here? Eye witness accounts will be interesting but will they be able to give you detail you need on tactics and strategy? Are there papers/correspondence/journals of any of the key military leaders of the time? In your case you really want to focus on the ‘elite’ or those in charge as they are the ones making decisions about strategy (though eye witnesses accounts might give you more honest opinions on how effective such strategies were).

  3. Annotated bibliography – Bubonic Plague in Glasgow 1900

    Primary Sources

    I believe the primary sources below would be good to back up information background information for the dissertation I intend on writing.

    “Bubonic Plague in Glasgow”, Leeds Mercury, September 3rd 1900.


    This primary source in the form of a newspaper article from the Leeds Mercury describes the origin of the bubonic plague in Glasgow in the year 1900 coming from a woman’s wake held only two weeks prior. This has highlighted the origin of the spread of the bubonic plague in Glasgow in that later period than usual and I would like to use this source. The source also discusses predicted impacts that the outbreak will bring to the city, however I have to keep in mind that these are all predicted impacts as it discusses ships which had left ports, but had yet to arrive at their destination.

    “Bubonic Plague”, Portsmouth Evening News, August 31st 1900.


    This primary source is in the form of a newspaper article published by Portsmouth Evening News, on August 31st 1900. This primary source highlights that the disease broke out in Thistle-Street, Glasgow. Thistle Street was one of the poorest places within Glasgow which would imply that at that time, sanitation would’ve been bad which could be a factor in the spread of the bubonic plague beginning there.

    “Bubonic Plague In Glasgow”, Sheffield Daily Telegraph, August 29th 1900.


    Again, this primary source takes the form of a newspaper article. The newspaper article posted by Sheffield Daily Telegraph discusses the second victim who sadly passed away due to the bubonic plague outbreak in Glasgow, it then goes on to discuss the measures taken to move close contacts of the infected individuals in order to curb the spread of the plague throughout Glasgow. This has taught me that even years ago, basic quarantine measures were being put in place

    Secondary Sources

    McEvedy, Colin. “The Bubonic Plague.” Scientific American 258, no. 2 (1988): 118–23. http://www.jstor.org/stable/24988987.

    The above secondary source is taken from a journal article. The article provides a history of the bubonic plague, explaining information about it before it had began spreading throughout Glasgow in 1900, this would be helpful in providing some overall background information on it’s previous history before the outbreak began later in Glasgow in 1900.

    Dean Katharine R., Krauer Fabienne and Schmid Boris V. “2019 Epidemiology of a bubonic plaque outbreak in Glasgow, Scotland in 1900” Royal Society Of Open Science 6 no.1 (2019) https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.181695

    This secondary source is taken from a journal article, it aided me in the understanding of the quarantine measures put in place in order to stop the spread of the bubonic plague throughout Glasgow after the outbreak which stemmed at the wake in the days prior. Seven different measures which were implemented are mentioned within the article which I could then later analyse in more depth to determine the success of these measures.

    Colvin, Thomas. “RECENT OUTBREAKS OF PLAGUE IN LIVERPOOL AND GLASGOW.” British Medical Journal vol. 2,2502 (1908): 1782–1783.

    The above secondary source discusses outbreaks of the bubonic plague in Glasgow and Liverpool, it summarises the outbreaks which took place within the city, the same information is also provided about an outbreak in Liverpool which I could use in my dissertation to make a comparison study between Glasgow and Liverpool’s outbreaks.

    1. The arbitrary nature of naming sources as primary and secondary is rather shown up by your final source Louise. Although this copy of the BMJ is referring to an event 8 years earlier, because it is from the same period of limited medical knowledge of bacteriology, it is probably best considered as a primary source. Most secondary sources for a topic which rely on scientific knowledge like your’s ought to be fairly recent – though some social history of the context of living and health conditions in 1890s Glasgow would help – start with chapters 10 and 11 of this: https://librarysearch.stir.ac.uk/permalink/44UST_INST/1t33jmq/alma991004116259706861

      I’m also a bit surprised not to find local newspapers on your primary source list – The Glasgow Herald is available via British Library Newspapers – and a quick search reveals plenty of useful results inc:
      And I’d certainly search ‘The Scotsman’ archive as well: https://www-proquest-com.ezproxy-s1.stir.ac.uk/hnpscotsman//advanced

  4. Preliminary synopsis for my thesis

    A comparison of the impressions formed by the elite establishment and the ordinary people of various nations affected by the ramifications of the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905.

    Primary Sources

    Russian viewpoint:

    Simkhovitch, Vladimir G. “Russia’s Struggle with Autocracy”. Political Science Quarterly 20, no. 1 (1905):111-139.

    This article provides a contemporary analysis by an expatriate Russian academic, who wrote of the revolutionary turmoil in his native land, instigated by Russia losing the war. He believed that adventurers and political fraudsters misled the government, resulting in an unnecessary war.

    Japanese viewpoint:

    Kogoro, Takahira. “Why Japan Resists Russia”. The North American Review 178, no. 568 (1904): 321- 327.

    Written by a Japanese diplomat, this piece defends Japan’s actions and somewhat predictably paints Russia as the aggressor. He goes as far as to say that if Japan had not reacted, the whole Far East would be in danger.

    Western viewpoint:

    Clews, Henry. “England and Russia in Our Civil War and the War between Russia and Japan”. The North American Review 178, no. 571 (1904): 812- 819.

    An American thinker from the period discusses the propaganda circulated by the combatants and how ordinary United States citizens perceived it. Russia was keen to incite racial prejudice using phrases like the ‘Yellow Peril.’ The author was not impressed, and believed America should support the Japanese in their struggle.

    Secondary Sources

    Biased towards Russia:

    Cohen, Aaron J. “Long Ago and Far Away: War Monuments, Public Relations, and the Memory of the Russo-Japanese War in Russia 1907-14”. The Russian Review 69, no. 3 (2010): 388-411.

    The author uses the symbolism of monuments and memorials commemorating the Russo-Japanese war to connect with even more consequential conflicts endured by Russia in the later twentieth century. He believes that the emotional energy of these memorials played some part in encouraging the discourse that questioned the legitimacy of the Tsar’s autocratic regime.

    Biased towards Japan:

    Howland, Douglas. “Sovereignty and the Laws of War: International Consequences of Japan’s 1905 Victory over Russia”. Law and History Review 29, no. 1 (2011): 53-97.

    The author discusses Japans struggle to assert its sovereignty and achieve economic parity with the West. He also defends Japan’s history of starting wars without bothering with a formal declaration. The emergence of Japanese power into a world system to which she was not previously integral resulted in the Second Hague Peace Conference revisiting the rules of war.

    Traditional Western viewpoint:

    Nordlund, Alexander M. “A War of Others: British War Correspondents, Orientalist Discourse, and the Russo- Japanese War, 1904–1905”
    War in History 22, no. 1 (2015): 28-46.

    The author discusses the problems faced by Occidentals when attempting to analyse the behaviour of the combatants. Burdened with the convention of Orientalism, it was challenging to relate what they observed to their own self-perceived culture. He maintains that the Western gaze of the period regarded both the Russians and the Japanese as Other.

    1. This is a good start, John, and it’s an interesting subject. You’ve found some useful articles about how the conflict was presented in western journals. Your aim may be too broad for the available documents (e.g. accessing the opinions of ordinary people in multiple countries); and it may be that you end up focusing instead on perceptions in the western press. I also think the idea of ‘various countries affected by the’ war is rather vague and would suggest choosing which to focus on if you want to take a comparative approach.

      There’s a number of potential perspectives here – e.g. do you want to focus on what it meant for imperialism, or how it changed perceptions of Russian autocracy (as the Simkhovitch source suggests).

      In terms of imperialism/orientalism there’s quite a lot of literature that would be useful to you.
      On Russian orientalism check out the books by David Schimmelpenninck van der Oye and Vera Tolz.
      In terms of how it impacts upon perceptions of East/West, the impact of Russo-Japanese war on Ottoman thought is interesting too.

      Your secondary literature doesn’t quite seem the most relevant for the questions you seek to answer (other than the Nordlund)

  5. Annotated Bibliography: Early female graduates at the University of Edinburgh and the University of Glasgow from 1893 – 1914.

    Primary sources:
    “Edinburgh University During 1892.” Edinburgh Evening News, January 2, 1893.

    This primary newspaper article provides an insight into the number of women who attended University of Edinburgh that year and what faculty the women went into. It further details the degrees that were conferred that year ranging from Master of Arts, Doctor of Science, Bachelor of Laws, Doctor of Medicine and so forth.
    “Dr Wallace Williamson on Scottish Women’s Hospitals.” Scotsman, December 11, 1915

    An interesting article that demonstrates how a male doctor commented on the female graduates who worked in Serbia after finishing university. Medicine was the more common degree that women studied at university and so by having a primary source of this kind demonstrating the work that women did after gaining their degrees is very fascinating.

    Blake-Jex, Sophia. Medical Women: A Thesis and a History. Edinburgh: Good Press, 1886.

    A remarkable document of the woman herself Sophia Jex-Blake who led the campaign to secure women access to a University education and began studying medicine at the University of Edinburgh in 1869 along with six other women.

    Secondary Sources:
    Ewan, Elizabeth. The New Biographical Dictionary of Scottish Women. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2018.

    A more recent edition of the Biographical Dictionary of Scottish Women (2006) encompassing more than a thousand women who shaped Scotland’s history. A very detailed account as it has been fully revised and extended that will be significant to use throughout my dissertation. The author provides not only the live stories of these women but uses photographs, additional entries and an extended thematic index. A remarkable narrative of how women’s acts and impact shaped Scotland’s identity.

    Leneman, Leah. A Guid Cause: the Women’s Suffrage Movement in Scotland. Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press, 1991.

    This popular book depicts of the women’s suffrage movement in Scotland. It is often based with suffragettes in London and with the Pankhurst family however, Leneman provides an excellent source of how the movement was more widespread. The Scottish women played an important part in the campaign for the parliamentary vote and Leneman begins from the early Victorian era until 1918.

    McDermid, Jane. “No Longer Curiously Rare by Only Just within Bounds: women in Scottish history.” Women’s History Review 20, no. 3 (2011): 389-402. https://doi.org/10.1080/09612025.2010.509152

    This journal article examines the development of women’s history in Scotland and focuses on key elements in the modern period, notably on women and education. It highlights the gender blindness of Scotland’s traditional education system but begins to elaborate on how women would no longer deal with this discrimination.

    Knox, William. The Lives of Scottish Women: Women and Scottish Society 1800-1980. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2006

    An interesting book detailing the lives of a number of remarkable women. Each story is important and fascinating in its own right and includes women like Elsie Inglis and Sophia Jex-Blake who are significant towards my proposed dissertation topic. The book provides the life stories of these women, and the author provides evidence of their huge contributions on how they shaped modern Scotland through biographical accounts as well as extracts from newspaper articles.

  6. Annotated Bibliography: Douglas Haig and the British Legion: Paternalism, Religion and Empire, 1918-1928.

    Secondary Sources:

    Bond, Brian & Cave, Nigel, eds. Haig: A Reappraisal 80 Years On. Barnsley: Pen and Sword Books, 2009.

    This book contains several chapters on interest: Haig and Religion by Nigel Cave, Haig and the Press by Stephen Badsey and Douglas Haig, the Common Soldier and the British Legion by Niall Bar and Gary Sheffield. These contain elements of relevance to my topic as they explore Haig and his relationship with Religion, the Press and the British Legion and were useful in directing me towards primary sources of interest as well as evaluating gaps in the study of Haig’s post-war activities.

    Heathorn, Stephen J. Haig and Kitchener in Twentieth-Century Britain  : Remembrance, Representation and Appropriation. London: Routledge, 2016.

    Heathorn’s work contains a chapter on Commemoration and Controversy: Haig’s Funeral and National Monument, providing useful insight into the reception to Haig’s death as well as the debate surrounding not just his statue but its location as well as direction towards primary sources for further investigation.

    Prior, Robin, and Trevor Wilson. “Haig, Douglas, first Earl Haig (1861–1928), army officer.” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. 23 Sep. 2004; Accessed 8 Feb. 2022. https://www.oxforddnb.com/view/10.1093/ref:odnb/9780198614128.001.0001/odnb-9780198614128-e-33633.

    This source, whilst providing limited material on Haig’s post-war activities, proved incredibly useful in direction towards suitable archival material for use in my dissertation as well as other secondary sources to contrast and compare Haig’s life after the war.

    Primary Sources:

    British Pathé

    British Pathé reels show Haig at various events after the war, which, when examined with his personal correspondence and newspapers from the time, can help identify why Haig was in various places, who he was with and what he said. One newsreel for example shows him in Shanghai in 1925 for an Armistice Day parade.

    Haig’s personal correspondence, diaries and papers

    Much attention has been given to Haig’s writings during the war, but for the purpose of this dissertation it is that which he writes after that are of interest. With these I can pinpoint where Haig was, why he was there, what he felt and his general thoughts on his post-war activities. For a project that is ultimately focused on Haig his personal writings are crucial to this study.

    Newspaper archives from Scotland, Britain and the former Empire.

    Whilst not a specific source, newspapers and periodicals from 1918-1928 are useful for this study given their ability to be cross-examined with Haig’s personal writings, whether the opinions Haig espoused at the events he appeared at, be they personal or for the British Legion, are agreed with or praised in local writings or disagreed with. Notably the Daily Herald feared Haig was using the British Legion as a paramilitary force, similar to those seen in post-war Germany; to what extent was this view shared or shunned?

    1. This is a very interesting collection of secondary material which should allow you to focus your study onto a particular aspect of Haig career.
      You ought to include the URL for the Haig papers – especially as they are at the National Library of Scotland: https://digital.nls.uk/great-war/general/index.html
      See also https://librarysearch.stir.ac.uk/permalink/44UST_INST/1t33jmq/alma991005010379706861

      I am interested in the post-war fears of the British Legion as a paramilitary force – I know that Haig boasted that the Legion helped to prevent veteran violence at the time of the General Strike but also that the Legion stood on the side of the government, which some regarded as problematic (see Gary Sheffield’s work on Haig) There is certainly scope for a study here, if this is what interests you.

    2. This looks like a cracking topic – tracing the war memorials which Haig unveiled and perhaps spoke to c.1919-28 – both in UK and abroad. It might be that you end up narrowing down – there may be enough material from the Scottish war memorials alone. But do be led by the primary sources…

      The newspaper coverage will be fulsome, I would think – don’t forget the BL Newspapers Online via the Portal/A-Z Resources. Before you start reading those, though, can you gain some sense of what memorial unveilings were usually like thus allowing you to see if Haig’s were typical/unusual?

      Lots of good secondary work on memorials: Alex King, Memorials of the Great War in Britain: The Symbolism and Politics of Remembrance (1998) is the best starting point leading you to further work by the Edward Jones Centre, the University of Birmingham Centre, the IWM itself etc, even our own Dr Smyth on music in war memorial ceremonies…

  7. Annotated Bibliography for my project – The History of the Memory Politics of “Racist” Statues in the United States, 1876- 1970

    Scholarly sources
    Karen L. Cox, No Common Ground: Confederate Monuments and the Ongoing Fight for Racial Justice. The University of North Carolina Press, 2021.
    This source by Cox is a recent publication from 2021. This is useful as not only does it contain information on the relevant topic, but will be considerably more up to date compared to other scholarly sources. This is useful given the recent BLM movement in 2020, which will be mentioned. Cox allows for an interesting insight as to why certain statues were commissioned and the meaning behind them as well as why they have continued to gain such a negative reaction for years to come.

    W. Fitzhugh Brundage, Karen L. Cox, Gary W. Gallagher and Neil Irvin painter, Confederate Statues and Memorialization. University of Georgia Press, 2019.
    A collaborative conversation between scholars and historians regarding the memorization of the civil war and the issues faced by this. This book allows for a contextual understanding of the past and presents racial and social issues surrounding Confederate memorialization.

    David W. Blight, Race and Reunion: The Civil War in American Memory. American Council of Learned Societies, 2001.
    Blight explores the treacherous task of remembering and neglecting probably one of the biggest historical events in America’s past – the Civil War. Blight explains that this event has had a catastrophic effect on race relations and America as a union to this day. The ultimate goal of race and relation is to demonstrate how a white America was established at the expense of the segregation of Black people and white people in the Civil War, segregation that never ended.

    I am still ongoing research for my primary sources, I aim to gain primary sources in the formats of civil rights speakers speaking out against ‘racist’ statues. I will be looking at background themes of centenary celebrations during the civil rights m movement and the impact it gained. I will also be looking at primary accounts for those that sanctioned the creation of these statues and the intentions behind their creation. It is also crucial to look at the creators themselves.

    1. Well done, Alys, for getting started on your bibliography! Annotating it will greatly help you as a building bloc for your dissertation’s scholarly literature overview.

      For each scholarly work, I am keen on your being able to identify and paraphrase the book’s/journal article’s central scholarly argument. If I recall, David Blight argues that the dominant memory politics of the US Civil War, esp. in the late 19th through early 20th centuries (the era of Jim Crow) focussed on reconciliation and bringing the nation back together after this horribly divisive event. Blight argues that the real problem was that such reconciliation through remembering and commemorations only happened between white people (the former Union/”Yankees” and former Confederacy/”Rebels”) – and that almost by default, this white reconciliation ‘wrote black people out of the history’ (actually, memory) of the Civil War. This actually achieved the objective of the Southern “Lost Cause” ideology, which waged serious campaigns in commemorations and culture (incl. in stage plays, novels, and early film): to erase black people as the reason for the Civil War.

      Other scholarly works you may be able to use include:

      Kevin Walsh, The Representation of the Past: Museums and Heritage in the Postmodern World. London: Routledge, 1992

      G. Kurt Piehler, Remembering War the American Way. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1995

      Edward T. Linenthal, Sacred Ground: Americans and their Battlefields. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1991

      John Bodnar, Remaking America: Public Memory, Commemoration and Patriotism in the Twentieth Century. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1992

      John R. Gillis, ed., Commemorations: The Politics of National Identity. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1994.

      Lynette P. Spillman, Nation and Commemoration: Creating National Identities in the United States and Australia. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997

      Katherine Hodgkin and Susannah Radstone, eds., Contested Pasts: The Politics of Memory. London and New York: Routledge, 2003 BF378.S65 C665 2003

      Katherine Hodgkin and Susannah Radstone, eds., Regimes of Memory. London and New York: Routledge, 2003 BF371 .R36 2003

      Harold Holzer and Mark E. Neely, Jr., Mine Eyes Have Seen the Glory: The Civil War in Art. New York: Orion Books, 1993

      You also already know of the website linked to Documenting the American South, called Commemorative Landscapes of North Carolina, the scholarly essays of which also contain images of Civil War statues and memorials in that state. Remember that all such images could be used as primary sources:

      Commemorative Landscapes of North Carolina. Documenting the American South. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Library. https://docsouth.unc.edu/commland/

  8. Annotated bibliography: The idea of ‘Ottomanism’ – Homogenizing national identity in a cosmopolitan Empire

    Secondary sources:

    1) Hanoglu, Sukru. A brief history of the late Ottoman Empire, Princeton & Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2009. VLEBooks.
    Excellent succinct survey of the Ottoman Empire I read in preparation for one of my earlier modules. It by no means goes in depth on my topic but provides an excellent overview of the time period I will be focusing on.

    2) Erik J. Zürcher. Turkey: A Modern History, London: I. B. Tauris, 2004.
    Found within the further reading section of Hanoglu’s work, this again provides much more broad context for the period I shall be focusing on for my chosen topic. According to a review the book summarises various scholarly works done on the Ottoman reform era which is an important time period in the process of forming an Ottoman national identity.

    3) Will Hanley. “What Ottoman Nationality Was and Was Not.” Journal of the Ottoman and Turkish Studies Association 3, no. 2 (2016): 277–98. https://doi.org/10.2979/jottturstuass.3.2.05.

    Much more focused article relating to Ottoman nationality and identity. It largely examines the 1869 Nationality law and its 1909 draft revision’s effect on the Ottoman state during the late Empire.

    Primary Sources:

    1) Denton, William. The Christians in Turkey, London: Bell & Daldy, 1863. Internet Archive – https://archive.org/details/christiansinturk00dent

    Useful source when examining the arguments being made by those who wished for the intervention in Ottoman affairs to ‘protect’ the Christians present where within he criticises Britain’s ‘pro-Turkish’ stance decrying Britain’s diplomats silence on alleged Christian abuses. According to his oxford biography this was initially largely ignored on its publication but would later sell out promoting further editions and translations. By 1876 he participated in the National Convention on the eastern question. He had various contacts within Orthodox communities and produced various works examining Balkan Christian communities other than this one.

    2) Part XVII. Eastern papers. Firman and Hatti-Sherif by the Sultan, relative to privileges and reforms in Turkey. Proquest UK Parliamentary Papers. U.K. Parliamentary Papers document (stir.ac.uk)

    Command paper presented to the British parliament which is effectively an English translation of a reform edict promulgated by the Ottoman state. An example of an important clause of this edict relating to my topic is the promise contained within of guaranteed rights regardless of religion or ethnicity.

    3) Barkley, Henry. A RIDE THROUGH ASIA MINOR AND ARMENIA: GIVING A SKETCH OF THE CHARACTERS, MANNERS, AND CUSTOMS OF BOTH THE MUSSELMAN AND CHRISTIAN INHABITANTS, London: John Murray, 1891. Internet archive. https://archive.org/details/Travel1891BarkleyArmenia

    Eyewitness testimony of Ottoman society will be crucial to understanding the challenges faced by the Ottoman state in developing a more homogenized national identity. As I shall largely have to rely upon English language documents testimony from travelers such as Barkley will be crucial to investigating my topic.

    1. This looks like a good start. I think the idea of using travellers accounts is a good one. You may also be able to find some useful sources from subjects of the empire. There’s not much translated but Butrus al Bustani’s writings come to mind as a prominent Ottomanist. The Clarion of Syria is translated into English, and some of his other writings may be too. Namik Kemal might be useful too. If you’re thinking of taking the narrative up to WWI Deringil recently published a book of memoirs written by Ottomans in the War (The Ottoman Twilight in the Arab Lands)

  9. Annotated Bibliography: Herbal medicine/treatments, procedures and their practitioners in the Victorian era.

    Primary Sources
    1) Seacole, Mary. Wonderful Adventures of Mrs Seacole in Many Lands. Dover thrift editions. Mineola, New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 2019.

    This source is an autobiography, written by Mary Seacole herself. In this source Seacole talks about topics such as the racial prejudice she faced as a black woman, and her experiences in treating disease during the Crimean war. This source is useful as it gives a first-hand account of a woman who found success in treating her patients using herbal Caribbean medicines.

    2) “A SURE CURE FOR FITS, INDIGESTION, AND MANY OTHER DISEASES is now made known in a “Treatise on Foreign and Native Herbal Preparations,” published by Dr. O. Phelps Brown”. The Penny Illustrated Paper. Saturday, Sept. 3, 1864. https://link-gale-com.ezproxy-s2.stir.ac.uk/apps/doc/BA3207727527/BNCN?u=unistirl&sid=bookmark-BNCN&xid=166a6fa4 (Accessed: 08/02/2022).

    This article was published by the Penny Illustrated Paper which was a cheap periodical which aimed to be more accessible than the London News. The source talks about a man called Dr O Phelps Brown who produced herbal medicines for patients and claims that Brown was able to successfully cure patients of bronchitis, asthma, and liver complaints. It will be beneficial to research more into Dr O Phelps Brown and his career. However, the source is a periodical so it may be overexaggerated as some of its other issues appear to be e.g. issue 17 Nov, 1887 where a giant squid is supposedly found and displayed on the front page.

    3) Bill To Amend Medical Act, 1858. Vol. 5, Bills and Acts. 1878. https://parlipapers-proquest-com.ezproxy-s2.stir.ac.uk/parlipapers/result/pqpdocumentview?accountid=14755&groupid=95414&pgId=eac41674-5461-4fd6-963c-543b9f5130f6&rsId=17E44CC7117#141.3333282470703. (Accessed: 09/02/2022).

    This is a Parliamentary Bill from 1878 which states that anyone who wishes to use the title of doctor, or any other medical practitioner, must have proof of a qualification. This shows that if a person wishes to prescribe herbal medicines to the public, they must show proof that they are a qualified doctor which means that when medicines were prescribed, they were provided by someone with medical knowledge and education. The source is reliable as it is a true reflection of the change in attitudes towards medicine and how it was taken more seriously. It is also a Parliamentary Bill which implies that it has been reviewed many times and has no reason to say anything but the truth.

    Secondary Sources

    1) Bivins, Roberta E. Alternative Medicine? : a History. Oxford ;: Oxford University Press, 2007.

    This source focuses mainly on practitioners and their approaches to treatment, rather than medicines alone. For example, Franz Mesmer and ‘mesmerism’, or Samuel Hahnemann’s homeopathy. The source is written clearly and is a good starting point for why alternative medicine should not be dismissed and the ways in which it holds relevance today. In addition, there are many examples of practitioners for me to explore to enhance my research.

    2) MacLennan Euan, and Pendry A. Barbara. “The evolution of herbal medicine as an unorthodox branch of British medicine: The role of English legislation from antiquity to 1914”. Journal of Herbal Medicine, Vol. 1, No.1 (2011) 2-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hermed.2011.03.001

    The source goes on to talk about the difficulties between separating herbalists from ‘quacks’ and the negative opinions they faced as a result. It is also important as it provides an overview of why it was difficult for licenced practitioners to be respected in society and by the government because of the negative impression that certain people placed on alternative medicine at the time. However, it could be argued that because it is in the Journal of Herbal Medicine that the writers are biased and may not wish to write about the flaws in these alternative practices.

    3) Mukherjee, Pulok K. Evidence-Based Validation of Herbal Medicine. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 2015.

    This source is useful because it mentions topics such as the safety of herbal medicines compared to pharmaceuticals, and case studies on herbal treatments. The source is also relevant because it gives a brief overview of the history of herbal medicine as well as specific treatments which can be useful to reflect on how these were used to treat patients in the Victorian era.

  10. Annotated bibliography – Political dimensions of the ways in which newspapers reported on key events during the Troubles in Ireland.

    Secondary Literature

    1 – Doughty, Roseanna, Representations of the Northern Ireland ‘Troubles’ within the British media, 1973- 1997. University of Edinburgh Press, 2019.
    This is an in-depth analysis of reports on the Troubles from various media outlets, including newspapers and television programmes which will be useful in assessing the reports from newspapers and the impact they had. This is a recent publication that argues that the media weren’t biased in their reporting and tried to resist the state who tried to dictate what was reported.

    2- Bairner, Alan, ‘The Media’ in Northern Ireland Politics, ed Arthur Aughey and Duncan Morrow. Longman Group Limited, 1996
    This is an analysis of the role that the media played during the Troubles and if the media coverage made things worse, this will be useful in determining a political element in the influence of the media.

    3- O’Farrell, John. (1998), ‘Divided People, Divided Press: Interpreting the poisonous silences in a fractured society’, Media Studies Journal, Volume 12, Number 2, Spring/Summer 1998,
    O’Farrell’s argument that printed press and broadcasted press operate by different “standards of fairness” based on audience and government restrictions. This argument will be interesting to research further and compare his argument with other historians’ views.

    Primary Sources

    1- British Irish Rights Watch, Submission to the United Nations’ Special Rapporteur on Summary and Arbitrary Executions: The Murder of 13 Civilians by Soldiers of the British Army on ‘Bloody Sunday’, 30 January 1972. London: British Irish Rights Watch, 1994.
    This source provides primary accounts following Bloody Sunday which will be useful to compare the accounts of people with opposing political views.

    2- Civil Rights Movement, ‘What They Said’ in Massacre at Derry, 1972.
    This chapter in Massacre at Derry also has accounts from people in the days following Bloody Sunday, which will also be useful to compare and contrast.

    Other primary sources I will use will be a variation of newspapers. I am still in the process of finding appropriate newspapers which will be sourced from the National Library Scotland and the British Newspaper Archive. I hope to find reports on the same events – Bloody Sunday, the hunger strikes and the death of Bobby Sands, the Birmingham pub bombings, and the Anglo-Irish agreement – in order to compare and contrast the content of such reports and determine the political dimensions.

    1. This is a good start. In terms of your methodology, you might want to look at the chapter on newspapers in Dobson/ Ziemann, eds., Reading Primary Sources.

      You should also try to make the newspaper search more systematic – the British newspaper archive we have access to mainly has local/ provincial papers: this is good but might be of limited use. We have The Times archives (till 1986) via our library. The National Library of Scotland in Edinburgh has the whole run – but you will need to be systematic on picking out key dates/ events.

      Also have a look at these titles:


      https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0016549297059006005 (this might be an interesting template for what your final analysis could look like – it’s about ‘The Troubles’ in four Irish newspapers).


      There is also a decent Edinburgh PhD thesis on the topic (the introduction here might be useful for your methodology essay, too): https://era.ed.ac.uk/handle/1842/37201

      And this slightly older thesis from 1987:

      Also make sure to search our library catalogue and Jstor for relevant titles.

  11. Axis Failures or Russian Victories at the Battle of Stalingrad and the ensuing Operation Uranus.
    Secondary Sources:
    Stalingrad, Antony Beevor, Viking Press, 1998.
    This book gives good detail to the developments in the period that I wish to write on. Although it is not a complete history of the events that occurred, it gives good insight into the successes and failures of both armies.

    The tide turns : the battles of Stalingrad, Alamein and Tunisia, (23 August 1942-14 May 1943) / by Strategicus
    The relevant chapters in this book show the harsh reality of the fighting between the soviets and the axis forces at the battle of Stalingrad. Though I will say there is less evidence presented on the losses of the Russians compared to the Germans which means the source is rather lopsided. But regardless, it still makes it a valuable resource.

    Barbarossa : the Russian-German conflict 1941-1945, Alan Clark
    Although rather descriptive it gives a fascinating insight into the hell that was Stalingrad and shows what damage both sides suffered in the battles and operations that occurred. As mentioned its failure is its descriptive nature and requires more interpretation from the reader and author.

    Primary Sources:

    Fuhrer Directives:
    Out of the seventy-four Fuhrer Directives there are eleven directives which are specifically for the war effort on the eastern front. They provide a unique perspective into the mind and strategy of Hitler from the invasion of Russia to his final days as dictator.

    Accounts from Axis and Russian soldiers fighting on the Eastern Front: Imperial War Museum Interviews
    These will be invaluable accounts to exploring the failures and success of both sides, as they show how the average soldier experience the warfare in and around Stalingrad. Furthermore it will provide insight into the effectiveness of the logistical and the structure of defence on the eastern front. This will be useful for my dissertation as it gives the dissertation a human touch as the experiences of someone who was there means what I am writing about is more then just an event in history but a part of someone’s life.

    Archival Research:
    Although I have not yet been, I will be able to use archival evidence from several places such as the Romanian military archives which will allow me to get a greater understanding of one of the lesser understood axis powers on the eastern front who played a large responsibility in maintaining and defending the ever-increasing eastern front. Which I believe will make my dissertation stand out from other work on the topic as in general the role of the minor axis powers is overlooked and outshone by Germany.

    1. This looks good. As we’ve discussed, focusing on Romanian participation will give you an original perspective for a topic about which a great deal has been written. It would be fantastic to make use of your language skills, and I think this should be your focus when it comes to identifying primary sources. I wonder if there’s Romanian accounts/memoirs that you can find online, so that you’re not dependent on the possibility of archival research (although it would be great if you could do this).

      Worth checking out the new book by Grant Harward on Romania and the Holocaust: ‘Romania’s Holy War’

  12. Annotated Bibliography: The development of LGBTQ+ Rights from 1945-1967

    Secondary Sources
    1) Lewis, Brian. Wolfenden’s Witnesses: Homosexuality in Postwar Britain. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2016.
    This book discusses a significant number of annotations surrounding the voices of the Wolfenden report, which gives a thorough examination to a greater perspective as to what life was honestly like for homosexual individuals in Britain prior to legalization.
    2) Davidson, Roger, and Davis, Gayle. “’A Field for Private Members’: The Wolfenden Committee and Scottish Homosexual Law Reform, 1950-67”. 20th-century British history 15, no. 2, 2004: 174-201
    This article looks into the impact of the Wolfenden Report on Scotland, as unlike in England, Scotland did not decriminalize homosexuality in 1967. In order to dive into this question, I wish to look into secondary writings that create an understanding of the Scottish perspective on the report and its impact on views across the border.
    3) Vickers, Emma. “Queer Sex in the Metropolis? Place, Subjectivity and the Second World War.” Feminist Review, no. 96, 2010: 58-73. [Available at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40928095.%5D
    It is essential to understand why I am starting in this specific period, as the issue I am writing on is not time-specific. In order to create this, I think it essential to write about the background of 1945 and the homosexual ideals and lifestyle prior to this – in order to do this, I am beginning with Vickers and her understanding of subjectivity between 1939 and 1945.

    Primary Sources
    1) Wolfenden, John F. Sir, Home Office, Scottish Home Department, Report of the Committee on Homosexual Offences and Prostitution. London, 1957. [Accessible at: https://parlipapers.proquest.com/parlipapers/result/pqpdocumentview?accountid=14755&groupid=95414&pgId=0d3120df-121b-42a0-9b67-94955a345504&rsId=17E3A92DD77#215.1999969482422%5D
    Among the most crucial documents on the topic and one of the main turning points of LGBTQ+ rights in England in the 1950s, the Wolfenden report provides a strong understanding of the views on homosexual individuals in England and the proposed developments towards their decriminalization. I intend to use this as a thorough baseline as to what was taken into consideration and what was avoided, as the proposals within this document were mirrored in the later laws the government passed.
    2) Parliament 1966-67, Sexual offences (no. 2). A bill [as amended by Standing Committee F] to amend the law of England and Wales relating to homosexual acts. London, 1967. [Accessible at: https://parlipapers.proquest.com/parlipapers/result/pqpdocumentview?accountid=14755&groupid=95414&pgId=0a36cbd2-6b8a-4326-8f07-4f94c9091a67&rsId=17E4AD7D072#0%5D
    As published in London in 1967, the decriminalization bill officially ended the prosecution of gay men partaking in relations with members of their sex. I intend to parallel this piece with the previous primary source in order to create an understanding of how many of the proposed articles within the Wolfenden Report were made into law.
    3) Unknown Author, Sin, Crime and Morals. London: Times Newspapers Limited, September 8th 1957. [Accessible at: https://link-gale-com.ezproxy-s1.stir.ac.uk/apps/doc/FP1800668629/STHA?u=unistirl&sid=bookmark-STHA&xid=56f63f04%5D
    This is one of several editorials and opinion pieces that I wish to study surrounding this topic. There were not a lack of people willing to speak their minds surrounding homosexuality, and Sin, Crime and Morals gives a strong understanding of the kind of comparisons individuals against homosexual reform made to the laws being debated in parliament.

  13. Annotated Bibliography – Impact of missionary Christianity, capitalist exploitation and colonial rule on gender roles and the status of women in Southern Rhodesia

    Primary Sources

    – Beere, Ellice. “The World of Women.” Penny Illustrated Paper, February 11, 1911.
    Although not specifically about women in Southern Rhodesia, this publication gives interesting insights into women and Christianity’s influence on what it is expected of them. Touches upon the perceived differences of womanhood between Christian and non-Christian groups.

    – “Christians and Cannibals.” Cornishman, November 8, 1934.
    Gives insight into British public thoughts about the role of missionaries and whether or not they achieved what they intended in the colonies. Focuses instead on the positive impacts of missionary Christianity on subjects in Southern Rhodesia such as education, health services and ‘civilising agencies’.

    – “Foreign Missions.” Derby Daily Telegraph, July 25, 1924.
    Discusses the great potential of Rhodesia for missionaries, as it was such a new colony, and the powerful Christian influence that could be wielded upon the new government there. Again focuses on the educational aspects of Christian missions – this is clearly the white Christian colonist viewpoint.

    Secondary Sources

    – Barnes, Teresa A. “We Women Worked So Hard”: Gender, Urbanization and Social Reproduction in Colonial Harare, Zimbabwe, 1930-1956. Oxford: James Currey Ltd., 1999.
    The book focuses on Zimbabwe/Southern Rhodesia (the colony I have chosen to focus on), specifically on the capital city Harare – which gives a clearer urban approach to the impact of capitalist exploitation on the people of Rhodesia. It also combines this with the role that African women had in the workplace up until the 1950s – which encompasses the period that I will be focussing on in my dissertation.

    – Schmidt, Elizabeth. Peasants, Traders, and Wives: Shona Women in the History of Zimbabwe, 1870-1939. London: James Currey Ltd., 1992.
    Focuses more specifically on the role of Shona women – so it narrows it down a lot more than just Southern Rhodesia as a whole. Focuses a lot on the social control of women and the reasons for this, but it also interestingly touched on the forms that women’s resistance took against patriarchal authority.

    – Wills, A. J. An Introduction to The History of Central Africa. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1973.
    The book gives a broad overview of the key themes, context and background of the history of central southern Africa and touches upon issues important to understanding my topic – how colonial rule had an impact on the status of women in Africa, including the pioneering Christian missions and the increase in trade and capitalist exploitation. A good starting point for background and contextual information.

  14. Preliminary Dissertation Topic:
    A study of the representation of the Picts found in Museums in comparison to the representation of other Scottish peoples of the same time period, and how this representation differs in Museums and sites of Heritage in Scotland.

    Primary Sources
    I have started by looking through newspaper articles for Primary sources, as this can allow me to gain a perspective into how the Picts have been viewed, and represented, more widely by means of these publications of their respective time frames and areas.

    “Pictish Nation.” Aberdeen Journal, December 16, 1918, 2. British Library Newspapers (accessed February 10, 2022). https://link-gale-com.ezproxy-s2.stir.ac.uk/apps/doc/JA3230163074/BNCN?u=unistirl&sid=bookmark-BNCN&xid=78461189.

    (1) This article outlines the release of a volume by one Archibald B. Scott, who discusses his perception of the Picts as an early Christian missionary to Scotland. This article outlines what the volume portrays, encompassing a “modern”, for the time, understanding of the Picts. In particular, it raises the “new” truths, such as the fact that the Picts were not the traditionally savage people as how they had been distinguished as earlier, and that, as a people, they had their own distinct identity. This source, and the piece it discusses, will be an important one to show the growing understanding of the Pictish people and how this contrasted the existing beliefs about them.

    “Origin of the Picts Uncertain.” Evening Telegraph, October 25, 1935, 12. British Library Newspapers (accessed February 10, 2022). https://link-gale-com.ezproxy-s2.stir.ac.uk/apps/doc/JF3237590155/BNCN?u=unistirl&sid=bookmark-BNCN&xid=eeca4b34.

    (2) This article covers a lecture given by one Professor J. D. Mackie regarding the question of “Who were the Picts?”. The lecture, in total, covers that the Picts as a people were not distinguishable enough to be wholly relevant outside of 297AD, that they left no history behind that was symbolically Pictish, and that the so-called “Pictish language” was never even distinct enough to begin with. This source is useful as it shows the past knowledge of the Picts, and how the lack of knowledge then led to the Picts being highly disregarded in study.

    “The Bullionfield Pictish Stone.” Dundee Courier, March 20, 1934, 3. British Library Newspapers (accessed February 10, 2022). https://link-gale-com.ezproxy-s2.stir.ac.uk/apps/doc/ID3228809375/BNCN?u=unistirl&sid=bookmark-BNCN&xid=b0f01082.

    (3) This article outlines a dispute regarding the removal of The Bullionfield stone, a stone bearing Pictish markings, from in its local area in Dundee and into a museum in Edinburgh. Stemming from the Commission for Ancient Monuments wishing to remove it to prevent it from being degraded or damaged, such as a similar stone in the old Church of Dargie. However, the local community believes the Bullionfield stone should be kept locally, with the commission accepting that this would be ideal if possible. This source shows a very important point, that being the disparity in the display of artefacts between museums and heritage sites, and provides an invaluable case study of this fact.

    Secondary Sources
    I have started by looking through newspaper articles for Primary sources, as this can allow me to gain a perspective into how the Picts have been viewed, and represented, more widely by means of these publications of their respective time frames and areas.

    ATKINSON, N.K., 2005. Curators of the last resort: the role of a local museum service in the preservation and interpretation of early medieval sculptured stones. In: S.M. FOSTER and M. CROSS, eds, Able Minds and Practised Hands: Scotland’s Early Medieval Sculpture in the 21st Century. Leeds: Society for Medieval Archaeology/Maney, pp. 335-342.

    HALL, M.A., 2005a. A museum curator’s adventures in Pictland. In: S.M. FOSTER and M. CROSS, eds, Able Minds and Practised Hands: Scotland’s Early Medieval Sculpture in the 21st Century. Leeds: Society for Medieval Archaeology/Maney, pp. 343-352.

    (4 & 5) Both of these secondary source articles come from the book Able Minds and Practised Hands, with a particular focus on interdisciplinary approaches in regard to early medieval sculpture studies, conservation issues, and awareness of the values and significance attached to medieval sculpture. The two specific articles picked as secondary sources for the sake of research were chosen for their relevance, the first one for a large focus on Pictish history and the second for the focus on heritage and museums on a national/cultural scale. To reiterate, the secondary sources chosen have a large focus on topic relevance to Pictish history and heritage in general.

    FLADMARK, J.M., ed, 1999. Heritage and Museums: Shaping National Identity. Shaftesbury: Donhead.

    (6) This secondary source has less focus on Pictish, or even Scottish, history, however, provides a full study of comparison and debate regarding interpretation and presentation of heritage. This extends to museums, and the source discusses how said museums “shape national identity” as the title suggests. This secondary source was chosen to gain a deeper general insight into museum’s handling of interpretation and presentation, as said.

    1. Craig
      As already mentioned, do please look at N Acheson’s Stone Voices.
      Anna Ritchie’s Perceptions of the Picts (Groam House) ought to be followed up (it sounds like you are sticking to your original ideas …)
      Look for what David Clarke has written about the Museum of Scotland project as well.
      I think I also pointed you to: HALL, M.A., 2020. Show and tell: rearticulating the monumentality of power, or Picts in the museum. In: C. THICKPENNY, K. FORSYTH, J. GEDDES and K. MATHIS, eds, Peopling Insular Art: Practice, Performance, Perception. Oxford & Philadelphia: Oxbow, pp. 207-213..

      Mark Hall does a lot of reviews of (temporary) exhibitions …

      I also mentioned Glenmorangie project at Nat Mus Scot and its various outputs …. and The Celts exhibition (associated publication) that took place in Brit Mus and then in Nat Mus Scot a few years ago. (Celts, Art and Identity edited by Julia Farley and Fraser Hunter).

      You also need to consider the current scholarship on the Picts (usually a time-lag with making its way into exhibitions / site intepretation, of course). Picts of the North a good start, and its bibliographies (Nick Evans and Gordon Noble).

  15. Dissertation topic – How topography impacted military doctrine, training and logistics during the second world war through the use of case studies.

    Primary Sources:

    1. The Alan Brook Diaries – Alan Brooke, Alex Danchev, and Daniel Todman. “War Diaries 1939-1945: Field Marshall Lord Alan Brooke”. London: Phoenix, 2002.

    The diaries of British field Marshall Brooke, invaluable insight into strategic and doctrinal change throughout the war. He was involved in many of the potential case studies and strategic meetings throughout the evolving conflict.

    2. Military Training Pamphlet 23. – The War Office, “Infantry and Armoured Divisions in the opposed crossing of a water obstacle”. London 1942.

    This training manual highlights the evolving ways in which both infantry and armour divisions were able to overcome a common topographical feature after prior experience. Provides mid-war context for the doctrinal state of British forces.

    3. “ACHTUNG-PANZER! The Development of Armoured Forces, Their Tactics, and Operational Potential”. By Heinz Guderian. Translated by Christopher Duffy. Arms and Armor Press, London, 1992, 220.

    Guderian is widely considered the father of armoured maneuver warfare. His doctrine was employed to great success by German generals and may highlight the ways it was adapted to cope with battlefield topography. This will also link to the ways in which the allies were able to overcome German mechanized divisions.

    Secondary Sources:

    1. “Operation COMPASS: The Australian Army’s First Experience of Manoeuvre Warfare in World War 2.” David Cave. Australian defence force journal, no. 203 (2017): 57–66.

    An exploration of the allies first success in the North African campaign from a doctrinal and logistical view. Also includes a comparison between Allied and Axis forces, logistics, doctrine and the perspective of commonwealth nations facing new topographic challenges.

    2. “Stopping the Panzers: The Untold Story of D-Day” Marc Milner, University Press of Kansas, 2014

    This book provides a late war insight into allied infantry divisions ability to engage armoured divisions on flat river plains in Normandy as a result of lessons learned in Africa. It highlights the doctrinal and equipment changes for Canadian divisions who were tasked with repelling the Nazi counterattack from SS Panzer Divisions near the River Mue in the days after D-Day.

    3. “Specialist Maps of the Geological Section, Inter-Service Topographical Department: Aids to British Military Planning During World War II”Edward P. F. Rose & Jonathan C. Clatworthy (2007) , The Cartographic Journal, 44:1, 13-43

    An exploration into the link between topographical intelligence and allied military planning throughout the war. This article highlights the importance of topography to enable forces to utilise their surroundings to successfully attack, encircle or defend a position. It will be used to supplement transcripts from strategic briefings or annotated tactical documents.

    1. Leo

      This is a good start.

      You will need to do a bit more working in finding suitable primary sources, especially by going through the on-line database at the National Archives in Kew. We discussed that this would be your main base.

      What you have is relevant, but it will not be sufficient. In particular, the Guderian source you have is problematic: your topic is the UK – why would you need a German (Nazi!) primary source for that?

      You’ll also need to discuss how you would use maps as historical sources. A good start is Jeremy Black’s Maps and Politics.

      In terms of your methodology paper you might look at the broader field of environmental history and warfare research as well asmilitary gfeography. Here are some titles that should provide you with further references – many come from a military context, so should be read critically rather than just be taken as read:




      https://research.library.fordham.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1070&context=environ_theses (a thesis)

      Laakonen and Tuckers, eds., The Long Shadows: A Global Environmental History of the Second World War is key

      Chris Pearson, Mobilizing Nature: The Environmental History of War and Militarization in Modern France is good for context

      Chris Pearson, Researching Militarized Landscapes: A Literature Review on War and the Militarization of the Environment. Landscape Research, 37(1), 115-133.

      Have a look at JStor, too and search our library catalogue systematically for relevant titles.

      For the context of strategy making Lawrence Freedman on Strategy; Freedman on Future War and David French will be key. I also recommend looking at the work by Alan Allport and Dan Todman on the Second World War. They are really good (and crisp) on key developments.

      Max Hastings is good in terms of the history of various battles, but needs to be contextualised.

      I hope this helps.


  16. Annotated Bibliography for the relationship between the ILP and extra parliamentary politics during 1915 – 1939.
    Primary Sources:
    “Glasgow Rent “Strike””, Evening Telegraph, November 25, 1915.
    This source is useful as it demonstrates the role played by the ILP in the Glasgow rent strikes during World War One. In particular, it shows the role played by the then Glasgow ILP councillor Patrick Dollan in supporting extra parliamentary action. The extra parliamentary politics in Glasgow during the First World War would play a key role in the political formation of soon to be ILP leadership figures demonstrating a key part of the relationship between the ILP and extra parliamentary politics.
    “The I.L.P. And The Communists”, Derby Daily Telegraph, April 15, 1933.
    This source provides coverage of the Annual Report of the National Council of the ILP for the party conference which discusses party involvement in the Hunger Marches movement of the National Union of Unemployed Workers. It also shows the regional nature of this involvement, a trend in many of the extra parliamentary political movements the ILP involved themselves in. For example, in this case the report notes that the ‘partisan tactics’ of local groups of the Communist Party stopped ILP involvement in the Hunger Marches in some areas.
    Maxton, James; Cripps, Stafford; Pollitt, Harry. The Unity Campaign. London: National Unity Campaign Committee, 1937.
    This pamphlet shows the reverse relationship in which parliamentary politicians and leadership would attempt to use their parliamentary position to influence and support extra parliamentary politics. It also shows the importance placed on extra parliamentary politics by ILP leaders, emphasising the need for building a ‘powerful and successful’ movement to gain progress and reverse what he saw as 15 wasted years. Their willingness to attempt working with the Communist Party nationally alongside the Socialist League is notable when local ILP branches had faced difficulties working with the Communist Party. This demonstrates possible conflict between national and regional approaches.
    Secondary Sources

    Brown, Gordon. Maxton. Edinburgh: Collins/Fontana, 1988.
    This biography of James Maxton, leading figure in the ILP for much of the interwar years including several years as leader of the party during the 1930’s. Useful as an introduction and overview to the life and political activities of a key individual in understanding the ILP as a party during this time. The book is also incredibly useful for showing the role played by Maxton in the Glasgow anti-war movement during the First World War alongside his various controversies and interventions from his parliamentary position in support of extra parliamentary political movements.

    Bullock, Gordon. Under Siege: The Independent Labour Party in Interwar Britain. Edmonton: AU Press, 2017.
    This is quite probably one of the newest books on the ILP, it provides a primarily chronological overview of the ILP during the interwar years. While the book focuses a lot on parliamentary politics, during the years prior to disaffiliation followed by a focus on internal party divisions following disaffiliation, it provides a useful secondary source as it is the only book in the historiography which covers the entire interwar period including pre and post disaffiliation.
    It’s the only source which covers the whole inter war years in close detail, as most books end their detailed analysis following disaffiliation. A good example of this is Drowse’s ‘Left in the Centre’ book which only has one chapter on the post disaffiliation ILP.

    Cohen, Gidon. The Failure Of A Dream: The Independent Labour Party From Disaffiliation to World War II. London: Tauris Academic Studies, 2007.
    This book is crucial as it firstly provides a good summary of the historiography of the post disaffiliation ILP and secondly is one of the very few books focused on the post disaffiliation ILP during the interwar years. It also provides a crucial revision to traditional conclusions on ILP disaffiliation, arguing that disaffiliation by itself didn’t mean the ILP had to weaken to the extent it did but rather that the outcome seen by the end of the 1930’s of disaffiliation was one of many possible outcomes due to internal and external factors. Lastly, due to its focus on post disaffiliation ILP it is useful in seeing the changes in the relationship of the ILP with extra parliamentary politics following disaffiliation.

  17. My topic subject has changed form what I was originally planning on doing, I now plan on doing it on the history of urban exploration- The question I am trying to answer is how important is the historical information to urban exploration.
    For me to be able to do this I will have to do oral testimonies and devise my own questionnaires as my primary source using Bristol online surveys and the use of the internet get the surveys shared as much as possible to gather as much information to peoples views on urban exploration and right up my own original report under the supervision of my dissertation supervisor.
    other primary source:
    Bradley Garrett- explore everything: Place hacking the City. 2013.
    I also plan on using Rebecca Madgin and James Lesh. 2021. People-centred methodologies for heritage conservation: exploring attachments to historical urban places. London. Routledge.
    secondary sources:
    D. Apel. Beautiful Terrible Ruins: Detroit and the anxiety of decline. New Jersey. Rutgers university press. 2015
    Wilson, S. Charting scottish tourism and the early scenic film: access, identity, and landscape. 2020. springer nature eBook.
    A. Jorgensen and R. Keenan, Urban wildscapes. Abingdon: Routledge. 2012. using part 1 chapter 4, playing in industrial ruins.
    I also plan on using the primary source: David Hamilton’s Lennox castle. Architectural heritage, November 1994, vol 5 no,1 pp51-65. I plan on using this primary source as the bases for a case study within my dissertation.

  18. Secondary Sources
    A history of Scottish medicine: Themes and Influences. Dingwall, Helen M. 2003
    This is a comprehensive secondary source that will provide a good starting point for my research. Dingwall provides a good overview of the progression of medicine through a view of the social, political, and socioeconomic areas effected by medicine. This book is available at the University of Stirling Library.
    The influence of Scottish medicine : an historical assessment of its international impact. Dow, Derek A.; Scottish Society of the History of Medicine.; British Congress on the History of Medicine (11th : 1986 : Edinburgh, Scotland) 1988
    This source is available in a physical copy at the University of Stirling Library. I was not able to find a overview of the book, however, it seems that it may be a very useful resource in my attempt to learn more about the subject of Scottish Medicine. I feel that this will provide useful information about the importance of my subject outside the area of study, thus influencing its importance within the area of study.
    The healers: a history of medicine in Scotland Hamilton, David, 1939-1981
    This book focuses mainly on how the social, political, religious, and economic events throughout the history of Scotland influence the practice of medicine throughout time. Instead of focusing solely on the medical side, this book looks at the healers throughout time and their role in society. I think that this would be extremely helpful in putting together the picture of life at the time and the importance of the administers of the medicine. This book is available at the University of Stirling in a physical copy.
    The history of medicine: a beginner’s guide Jackson, Mark, 1959- author. c(2014)
    This book is a secondary source that is more expansive in its coverage of the history of medicine throughout both a chronological and geographical space. I believe that this book with be a good starting overview as well as allow me to see the difference between the rest of the world and Scotland. I think that it would be helpful in identifying things that are unique to Scotland. This book is available in an digital version from the University of Stirling Library.
    Medieval and early modern representations of authority in Scotland and the British Isles Buchanan, Katherine (Katherine Ann), editor.; Dean, Lucinda H. S., editor.; Penman, Michael A., editor.
    This book is available in e-book form from the University of Stirling Library. While it is not directly related to medicine, I believe that this book will be helpful to me as it provides a number of unique opinions on the British Isles during the early modern era. It is a collection of essays covering themes from merchants, church, nobility, the government and more. I think that it is important to fully understand the influences that the events at the time had to the way in which medicine was conducted. This book will provide a comprehensive overview of the events at the time that will help me better understand my subject.

    I was unable to find a good primary source because I am still narrowing down the time frame that I will be looking at. I know that I want to look at the progression and effect of the practices of medicine in early modern Scotland, however I have yet to narrow it down to a more precise period of time.

    1. There is a wide range of reading here which really reflects what you yourself say – that you are still narrowing down the project. I’m not entirely convinced some of these readings will be useful but it depends on the angle you are taking and that is something we still need to discuss fully. As to the chronological period … again we need to narrow that down but for the early modern period you need to look at various articles by Elizabeth Foyster and some work by Karen Jillings along with Helen Dingwall.
      See Elizabeth Foyster, ‘Life outside the medical centre’ in Charles McKean, Bob Harris and Christopher A. Whatley eds, Dundee: Renaissance to Enlightenment (Edinburgh, 2015), 111-27
      Helen Dingwall, ‘Illness, Disease and Pain’ in Elizabeth Foyster and Christopher A. Whatley eds, A history of everyday life in Scotland, 1600-1800 (Edinburgh, 2010), 108-36
      Karen Jillings, ‘Humanism and Medicine in sixteenth-century Aberdeen’, Intellectual History Review, 18:1 (2008), 31-40

      You will need to consider available primary sources as we attempt to narrow down the focus / decide what your research questions are.

  19. Napoleon’s work and legacy influences on the birth of the Belgian nation-state.

    Secondary sources
    Hechter, Michael. Containing Nationalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ProQuest Ebook Central

    This book focuses on the idea of nationalism. It explores the main subjects and terms related to nationalism such as the nation-states, its origins and the way it developed. It does not give an analyze of Belgian nationalism or the creation of the nation-state, but the broad theoretical approaches will be of help in order to deeply understand the concept of nationalism.

    Rowe, Michael. Collaboration and Resistance in Napoleonic Europe : State Formation in an Age of Upheaval, c.1800-1815. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan Limited, 2003. ProQuest Ebook Central

    This book explores Napoleon’s influence on the creation of new states in Europe. This work contains different chapters written by different historians, thus offering several points of view. The chapter relating the most to my subject would be the ones on Germany and Italy. Indeed, they would offer an idea of Napoleon’s influence on the creation of German and Italian nationalism. Although it does not mention Belgium it would be helpful to compare Napoleon’s influence on other nations as a starting point.

    Witte, Els, Jan Craeybeckx and Alain Meynen. Political History of Belgium : From 1830 Onwards. Kessel-Lo: ASP, 2009. ProQuest Ebook Central

    This book discusses the political history of Belgium from its creation in 1830 until the 1990s. The chapter one of this work explores the different aspects of the creation of the nation-state. It offers an overview of several important aspects of its creation such as the revolution, the institution of a king as well as the establishment of a constitution.

    Primary sources

    Belgian civil code.

    This source offers a knowledge of the civil law in Belgium at the time of its creation, since it underwent very little change through the years. This text is very similar to the Napoleonic code published in 1804 France, offering thus a starting point of a link between Napoleon and the birth of Belgium.

    Louis Joseph Antoine de Potter. « Révolution belge 1828 à 1839 ; Souvenirs personnels : avec des pièces à l’appui ». Bruxelles : A. Jamar, 1840.
    (Belgian Revolution 1828-1939; personal memories: with evidence)

    This source is a book manuscript written by Louis de Potter, a Belgian intellectual and revolutionary. He describes his personal memories and experience of the Belgian revolution from 1828 to 1839. He writes about his thoughts, his theories and the events that happened during the Belgian revolution period. This book is written in French and has not been translated in English to the best of my knowledge.

    Auber, Daniel François Esprit. La Muette de Portici. 1828.

    The plot of this play is the story of a Napolitan revolution against the Spanish in 1647.This play was played on the 25th August 1930 in Brussels and started a revolutionary uprising in the streets of the capital. Although this source is not evidence of a link between Napoleon and the birth of the Belgian nation-state, it is a source that will enable me to understand how the Belgian revolution started and the wider context around it.

    1. This is a good start and a very interesting topic.

      Rowe is a good guide for thinking about the type of people who welcome the Napoleonic system, and you may want to think of the questions he raises when it comes to Belgium. Also worth looking at what’s been written on Napoleon’s legacy – good books include the Riall and Laven collection that I mentioned, and John Davis on ‘Naples and Napoleon’

      You’ll need to get a bit more acquainted with the historiography of Belgian nationalism: Marteel, Stefaan, The Intellectual Origins of the Belgian Revolution: Political Thought and Disunity in the Kingdom of the Netherlands, 1815-1830 (2018) is a good place to start.

      In terms of primary sources, memoirs sound like an excellent idea. Worth trying to trace the life histories of the leaders of the Belgian revolution – they were quite young so what was their experience of Napoleonic rule?

  20. Annotated Bibliography- The Influence of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade on state-building in Pre-colonial West Africa

    Primary Sources:
    (1)Burton, Richard. Mission to Gelele, King of Dahome, 1864. London: Routledge, 1966.

    Written by the late commissioner to Dahomey, Richard Burton. Burton looked to investigate the brutality, ferocity along with politeness of Dahomeian society. He was sent by her majesty’s government to express friendly relations with the kingdom of Dahomey, but also to investigate whether the King was still engaging in the act of Atlantic slave trade. Allowing there to be an investigation of how important the Trans-Atlantic Slave trade may have been to a major pre-colonial kingdom.

    (2)Duncan, John and King Gezo of Dahomey. Letter of King Gezo. Letter. Abomey, 1 July 1845.

    Looks at how the end of the Trans-Atlantic Slave trade impacted other customs and events in the kingdom of Dahomey. Written by King Gezo of Dahomey gives insight into the process of the bureaucracy in Dahomey and how the state has changed due to the changing relations and markets internationally.

    (3)Dupuis, Joseph. ‘Comments of Osei Bonsu, King of Asante on the Abolition of the Slave Trade in 1820’, in Journal of a Residence in Ashantee. 1824.

    Again, looks at how the end of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade was viewed by royals and nobles in West African kingdoms. Osei Bonsu, King of the Ashanti, attempts to petition the European or American traders to reinstitute the Trans-Atlantic slave trade. This highlights how important that trade was to these kingdoms, how they had built their nations around the slave trade and the wealth associated with it.

    Secondary Sources:
    (1)Curtin, Philip D. ‘The Atlantic Slave Trade 1600-1800’, In History of West Africa, edited by J.F.A Ayayi and Michael Crowder, 240-268. London: Longman, 1971.

    Gives a good overview of the actions of precolonial West African states during the height of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade, also gives a wide view of the varying involvement different states had with European and Muslim slave traders. The chapter also acknowledges the existence of a West African domestic slave trade and highlights the differences between the old domestic system and the more commercialized Trans-Atlantic slave trade.

    (2)Law, Robin. ‘Dahomey and the Slave Trade: Reflections on the Historiography of the Rise of Dahomey’. The Journal of African History 27, no. 2 (1986): 237-267. https://www.jstor.org/stable/181135

    Gives an in-depth view into the role of the Kingdom of Dahomey in the Slave Trade. Investigates the coinciding rise of Dahomey and the explosion of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade in West Africa. The article also looks at the impact of the Slave trade on neighbouring African states. Looking at the rise of Dahomey paired with the growth of the Trans-Atlantic Slave trade will give important information when looking at the state building of West African kingdoms.

    (3)Law, Robin. The Slave Coast of West Africa, 1550-1750: The impact of the Atlantic slave trade on an African Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991.

    Gives an overview of the operations and impact of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade in and on West Africa and its nations, while also looking at how European slavers and African slavers differed and how the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade was a new commercialized and industrial trade. The book also looks at the rise and fall of West African states and how these fluctuations were linked to the growth of the Slave trade. An important text in investigating the slave trade’s influence on West African state-building.

  21. Secondary Sources
    Ross, Cathy. “Social History from Product to Process”, Social History in Museums: Journal of the Social History Curators Group, 34. (2010) pp. 27-33.
    In this journal entry, from the social history curators group, Cathy Ross discusses the change of social history curating from a shift in focus from what was collected to how it was collected. She notes that this change was caused by the rise of cultural history which focused on analysis rather than narrative storytelling. This journal entry will be important to my argument as it acknowledges how social history curatorship has developed and changed over the past 30 years.

    Broadbent, Jennifer. “People and Places: Developments in Social History 1989-2011 ”, Social History in Museums: Journal of the Social History Curators Group, 36. (2012) pp. 26-31.
    Another journal article from the social history curators group. Jennifer Broadbent focuses on the development of social history in museums from 1989 to 2011, by examining three case studies. These include the social history displays at the Edinburgh’s People’s Story, Glasgow’s People’s Palace and the Cardiff Story. This journal is incredibly important to my dissertation as she suggests that social history curating has moved beyond focusing on working classes lives to being about local people of all classes and their connection to the local area. My dissertation then seeks to focus on the change in social history curating in Scottish folk museums which have inherently focused on local lives.

    Carter, Laura. “‘Histories of Everyday Life’ in Local Museums” In Histories of Everyday Life: The Making of Popular Social History in Britain, 1918-1979. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2021.
    In this chapter Laura Carter explores British folk museums, which provides a lot of background knowledge, of particular importance is her focus on ‘second-wave’ folk museology which focuses on the shift in folk museums from rural to industrial. This chapter is helpful for my dissertation as it provides me with background knowledge on the topic thus making providing my argument more research.

    Primary Sources
    “Regional Sub-Groups, a proposal”, Group for Regional Studies in Museums, Newsletter No. 1, December, 1975.
    This newsletter discusses new regional subgroups for the social history curators group and demonstrates how Scotland has too few members to create a subgroup. This is important as it shows how underrepresented Scottish social history curating was during the 1970s, which is the beginning period that my dissertation will focus on in time. Thus, I can show how it has changed in the last 40 years.

    Cruikshank, G. D. R. “GRSM in Scotland – The story so far;”, Group for Regional Studies in Museums, Newsletter No. 3, December, 1976.
    This newsletter highlights the growth of social history curating in Scotland. In particular, Cruikshank discusses notes from a meeting held in Stirling on the 28th of May, 1976. This provides insight into discussion in the meeting about approaches to the collection in folk-museums in Scotland. This similarly can help me to see the growth of social history curating in Scottish folk museums and how it has changed.

    “Kingussie Folk Museum”, Aberdeen Press and Journal, January 22, 1976.
    Article provides an newspaper account of the Strathspey District Council setting up a committee to investigate methods to improve the appeal of the Highland Folk Museum. This article will be important as I seek to use the Highland Folk Museum as an case study in my dissertation, thus this article provides me with a primary account of the changes the folk museum made to improve appeal. My dissertation can explore what these changes were and how beneficial they have been/.

    1. Hello Sarah,

      Some good starting points here for sources (the Laura Carter book is new to me and looks fascinating!).

      Do you have a working title for your project? You need one to help focus your topic area and support your next steps refining your overarching research question(s), aims and objectives. What ‘gap’ or ‘problem’ will your project address?

      As we have discussed, the SHCG journal will be useful for gaining and analysing perspectives of curators written over the time period under investigation (arguably, thus, primary source materials?). Indeed, it is good to see you reading around social history curating in the UK, and Scotland specifically. However, if your focus is on curating in Scottish ‘folk museums’, you will need to direct your reading more specifically towards understanding the development of the Scottish folk museum movement. Globally, this is often traced back to Scandinavian examples (i.e., open air folk museums). This begs the question of what/if anything has been written about folk museums in Scotland? I suspect (but this would need investigating through literature searches!) that Scottish folk museums may intersect with the rise of the local history movement and/or Scottish ethnology. “An Introduction to Scottish Ethnology” edited by Alexander Fenton and Margaret A. Mackay (Edinburgh: John Donald, 2013) might be a useful starting point. Sharon Macdonald (anthropologist) has also worked on Scottish folk museums and local museums of everyday life (see her chapters on Skye Folk Museums in “Memorylands: Heritage and Identity in Europe Today” book, or the chapter “On ‘Old’ Things: The Fetishization of Past Everyday Life” in the book ‘British Subjects: An Anthropology of Britain’ edited by Nigel Rapport (2002)).

      More specifically, you suggested focusing on the case-example of the Highland Folk Museum. Again, you will need to find what secondary sources have already been written on the history of this museum and its curatorial practice. I mentioned a current PhD student at UoS – Rhona Ramsay (supervised by Dr Sally Foster) – did some research at the HFM (check out her UoS bio). From reading her PhD, it seems that I. F. Grant wrote a book on the making of HFM (2007), which might have a useful bibliography also – see here: https://shop.nms.ac.uk/collections/books/products/the-making-of-am-fasgadh

      Regarding primary sources, when your topic is further refined, we discussed how you could do further background investigations to see if the HFM has publicly accessible organisational archives that may be useful (e.g., newsletters, past exhibition catalogues, images, collecting policies etc). We discussed the potential (if pragmatic) of planning to do a site-visit for exhibition analysis and/or an interview with a present curator or even possibly oral history with past curators as primary sources. Local newspapers might be useful.

      I hope this helps, Sarah.

      Best wishes,

  22. Annotated Bibliography: The Reputation of Anne Boleyn in Media

    Primary Sources

    1) The Other Boleyn Girl, directed by Justin Chadwick (2008; Los Angeles, CA: Columbia Pictures, 2015) Box of Broadcasts https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/prog/0189DDD2?bcast=115666989

    As my research question focuses on Anne Boleyn’s media reputation, I have started gathering media sources that showcase a modern look. This film may not be historically accurate, but how Anne Boleyn is portrayed and perceived in the modern age can be discussed.

    2) Anne Boleyn, directed by Lynsey Miller (2021; Los Angeles, CA: Sony Pictures Television, 2021) Box of Broadcasts

    Another modern portrayal of Anne Boleyn on screen. This mini-series is helpful as a recent programme following her turbulent relationship with Henry VIII.

    3) “Anne Boleyn.” Morning Post,1876 https://link-gale-com.ezproxy-s2.stir.ac.uk/apps/doc/R3210528385/BNCN?u=unistirl&sid=bookmark-BNCN&xid=9f8d7a25.

    This source is a review of a play based on the life of Anne Boleyn. This is relevant as it can be used as evidence that Boleyn’s life has always been dramatised and used for entertainment. I can investigate Boleyn’s appeals to keep creating media exploring her life and famous death with these sources.

    Secondary Sources

    1) April Harper, ‘Silencing Queens: the dominated discourse of historical queens in film’ in Janice North, Karl C. Alvestad, Elena Woodacre eds, Premodern rulers and postmodern viewers. Gender, sex, and power in popular culture (2018), 51-68 https://link-springer-com.ezproxy-s2.stir.ac.uk/content/pdf/10.1007%2F978-3-319-68771-1.pdf

    This chapter is helpful to use in the broader context of history and media. The main point relevant to my research is how on-screen, historical queens are pushed to the background of scenes, and a speaking role is often cut short.

    2) Janice North, Elena Woodacre, and Karl C. Alvestad, ‘Introduction – Getting Modern: depicting premodern power and sexuality in popular media’ in Janice North, Karl C. Alvestad, Elena Woodacre eds, Premodern rulers and postmodern viewers. Gender, sex, and power in popular culture (2018), 1-19 https://link-springer-com.ezproxy-s2.stir.ac.uk/content/pdf/10.1007%2F978-3-319-68771-1.pdf

    This chapter is a useful source as it discusses how history is perceived through media and can help modernise stories to connect with more modern audiences. As Anne Boleyn has been a subject in many forms of media, this chapter links to this as it considers the possibility of retelling these same stories in new ways and representing the truth or being altered for storytelling purposes. It also uses Anne Boleyn as a direct example.

    3) Stephanie Russo, The Afterlife of Anne Boleyn: Representations of Anne Boleyn in Fiction and one the Screen. (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020)

    I chose this book as a source because it covers an extensive range of Anne Boleyn represented in media. Having a look at the material on Boleyn can further my research to see how the different portrayals of her have impacted people’s view of her and what has become of her reputation.

    1. Using films as sources is important in this study – although rather than read a review of a play you should read the play itself. Do you intend just to keep a modern focus or are the earlier films/representations of Boleyn to show how any portrayal of her changed over time (or not)? I am sure there are many films / TV series that you may want to consider but you will also need to be selective about how many you watch as I’m not sure you can do them all. How will you choose what to consider for this study.

      The secondary literature is relevant but you will also want to consider literature on Boleyn herself (how she has been portrayed by historians as well as in popular culture?), but also theoretical/media studies approached and critiques. The literature you will need to engage with will be somewhat determined by the films you choose to focus on for this study. But a decent beginning which should help you focus your research questions.

  23. secondary sources:

    Cubitt, Catherine, ‘Apocalyptic and Eschatological Thought in England Around the Year 1000’
    Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, SIXTH SERIES, Vol. 25 (2015), pp. 27-52 (Cambridge University Press)

    This journal article provides information on how Aethelred the Unready was poorly advised during his time as king of England. The source provides details of the religious outlook which was taken at this time and how it affected the rule and led to the collapse of his kingdom. The article discusses the impact of religion on the political landscape on the rule of Aethelred.

    Lawson, M. K., “Archbishop Wulfstan and the Homiletic Element in the Laws of Aethelred II and Cnut”, The English Historical Review, Vol. 107, No.424 (jul., 1992), pp. 565-586. (Oxford University Press) https://www.jstor.org/stable/575245?seq=7#metadata_info_tab_contents

    This journal article discusses some of the failures of Aethelreds rule. some of the factors mentioned in the source discuss how his counsel provided poor recommendations and that led to poor decisions and the loss of respect by many in his counsel.
    The text discusses Aethelreds return to the throne in the Anglo-Saxon chronicles and how he promised to change his ways and be a better Christian ruler. The article also explains how aethelreds poor advice led to a lack of peace which was required for king to rule with success in a Christian nation. This lack of peace was due to poor defence against attackers, specifically the Danes.

    Keynes, Simon, “A Tale of Two Kings: Alfred the Great and Aethelred the Unready”, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Vol.36 (1986), pp 195-217. (Cambridge University Press)

    This article discusses the lack of success which was seen under the reign of Aethelred the Unready and how he came across as only being focused on his own self interests. The source touches on the failure to defend his kingdom and how Alfred done a far superior job in protecting and running England.

    Primary sources

    Ingram, James, “Anglo Saxon Chronicles (translated), Part 3: A.D. 920-1014”, (London, 1823) Online Medival and Classical Library Release, No.17. http://mcllibrary.org/Anglo/part3.html

    This primary source gives a yearly account to the failures by Aethelred the Unready in protecting England from Danish invaders. The source is useful as it allows for first hand information being provided on the events which took place during Aelthereds rule as king and, what eventually cost him his throne.

    Sturluson, Snorri, “Heimskringla”, (translated: Finlay, Alison, Faulkes, Anthony)(University College London, 2011, London) pp. 137-164

  24. Annotated Bibliography- Heritage and Myths Associated with the Comyn Family in the North and North-East of Scotland
    Secondary Sources:
    1) Young, Alan, Robert the Bruce’s Rivals: The Comyns, 1213-1314, (East Linton, 1997)

    This book offers an insight into the bad reputation surrounded by the Comyn family as a result of the competition for the throne between the Comyn and Bruce families. The source will be useful to take background information from and also puts into context how the Comyn family is portrayed by scholars. Within the book numerous tales of the family are both discussed and examined which demonstrates that the topic is being acknowledged and debated by scholars.

    2) Crawford, Alexander, Family and Faction: The Comyn’s and Scottish Politics, c. 1200-1249 (degree diss., University of Aberdeen, 2014)

    This source offers a fresh approach in the analysis of the Comyn family and their role/influence during the thirteenth century. Crawford discusses the confusing influence and actions of the family during the Century and also highlights his dissatisfaction with some of the more recent historiography examining the family. This source will be useful as a means of understanding the misconceptions attached to the family relating to the myths about the Comyn’s involvement in politics. The source is also useful as a way of understanding primary evidence related to the topic as Crawford makes clear he does not accept the recent secondary scholarship and therefore his argument relies heavily on his analysis of primary sources.

    3) Guido, Michael Anne. “Merleswain and the Comyn Earls of Buchan : their antecedents in Atholl and Fife.” Foundations: Newsletter of the Foundation for Medieval Genealogy 2, no. 4 (2007): 277-300.

    This source offers a bibliographical insight to the Comyn family, Earls of Buchan. This will provide information relating to the topic of the Comyn family in the Aberdeenshire area. This source will be useful as a way of understanding the ancestral background of the family and will help highlight the links the family have with the North and North-East of Scotland, setting the scene for the local legends and myths that surround the family in such areas.

    Primary Sources:

    1) Anderson, AO (ed), Scottish Annals from English Chroniclers AD 500-1286 (London, 1908)
    This source provides primary evidence for medieval Scotland, this will be useful when attempting to understand why many of the myths and legends surrounding the family have been so widely popularized. This source will provide context to the tales of the family and allow us to determine why the myths were created and if there are any truth to them.

    2) Collections for a History of the Shires of Aberdeen and Banff, ed. J. Robertson (Aberdeen, 1843).

    This source will be extremely useful for this topic as it is specific to the North/North-East area. The source contains useful historical texts from the medieval period of interest, including, manuscripts, state papers and also legends which will all be important to make use of when examining the topic at hand. Information relating to the topic will be easier to find within this collection of sources as it is specific to Aberdeenshire and can set the scene for the area at the time that the family held influence over.

    3) Fraser, W, The Chiefs of Grant (Edinburgh, 1883).

    This source outlines information regarding numerous Scottish families and will therefore offer helpful insight into details of the Comyn family. This will be good for gathering background knowledge that can be used to set the scene and for basic understanding of who the Comyns were and their situation in the North and North-East of Scotland.

    1. A very interesting topic, especially if you can plug it into local legend and actual (living) heritage (e.g. displays at castles), place-names, physical features etc.

      Maybe give some thought as to what your research question will be – don’t just look to catalogue or describe these Comyn legends, have a hook. Are they contested? Are they deliberately eroded over time? Is their lingering Comyn sympathy v. Bruce/Stewart rule? Does oral tradition stand in for physical commemoration?

      Your secondarues are fine – don’t forget Alan Young’ 1997 monograph.

      On primaries, the 5 volume Aberdeen an Banff collection should be valuable – but there are other north-eastern authored ‘family’ histories: many f them sit out as reference material on the NLS open access shelves. identifying which local archives might b relevant would be wise as you may well need to sift through all periods c.1314-c.2000, with a focus on 16th-19th centuries?

      Is there perhaps a study which looks at a similar family/legend and might give you a model (not even necessarily in Scotland)? The Robin Hood legends are of course fictional but have real origins. Maybe Wallace? or Rob Roy?

  25. My dissertation topic is an archaeological analysis of Viking settlement/influence in South West Scotland. While the exact geographical area I’m going to look at isn’t completely rigid (might occasionally go a little farther North, or talk about influence in Ireland/North England to give some context/comparison) this is where my main focus will be. I found my first 2 secondary sources from a quick visit to the Uni library, and the last via searching the internet for journal articles. I plan to use these as a starting point in my reading and a source of analysable data in the case of the journal article. My primary sources were found via SCRAN (Scottish Cultural Resources Access Network) which I discovered via the library session on Monday, as well as the Vikings module I did last semester in the case of the Viking Age Reader. I plan to use these mainly just as specific examples to back up my points, although the reader is useful in itself as a source of information.

    Secondary Sources

    1) Batey, Colleen E. and Graham-Campbell, James. Vikings in in Scotland, an Archaeological Survey. (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2002)

    This is a nice easy to read book which introduces the topic nicely as it also provides a good amount of background information. The regional study chapters are great as it helps me focus in on my own regional focus for my dissertation, which is South West Scotland (Chapter 6, and maybe bits of chapter 5). At the back is also a section which gives lists of further reading which will be incredibly helpful as I progress through the early stages of my studies.

    2) Wilson, David M. The Vikings in the Isle of Man. (Gylling: Narayana Press, 2008)

    This goes into a good amount of detail about the history of Norse settlement here, with chapters focusing on religion and economy/politics as well as the settlement in general. As with the above book, the insights on the archaeological evidence are very valuable and look to be the kind of thing that would help me in my own analysis of material evidence.

    3) Ashby, Steven P. “Combs, Contact and Chronology: Reconsidering Hair Combs in Early-Historic and Viking-Age Atlantic Scotland” in Medieval Archaeology Vol.53 Iss.1, 2009. [Online] Accessed via: https://pdf.zlibcdn.com/dtoken/8af1cb2bc82bc08122a3a002f48c103a/007660909×12457506806081.pdf

    A very interesting analysis I found, which attempts to track and identify population interactions between the Scandinavian and Native population at the time using combs. There is a lot of data in this one, so it took a couple of read throughs to properly understand things.

    Primary Sources

    Due to the nature of my dissertation topic (using a lot of archaeological evidence to form my analysis) a lot of my primary sources used will be material evidence.

    1) Glass beads found in woman’s grave, Ballinaby, Islay, Inner Hebrides [Online] Accessed via: https://www.scran.ac.uk/database/record.php?usi=000-000-582-325-C&scache=45j151vhut&searchdb=scran&PHPSESSID=7hb49qdeui452cdgsndn53rcv0

    I intend to talk a lot about archaeological finds to draw conclusions, for example this was found in a couple’s grave, and the fact they appear to have been quite wealthy, along with the other possessions buried with the woman, cloth making and ironing equipment and a ladle, would imply actual settlement rather than passing trade/raiding, possibly as early as 850.

    2) Viking Sword Hilt found on the Isle of Bute [Online] Accessed via: https://www.scran.ac.uk/database/record.php?usi=000-000-192-292-C&scache=45kug1vhua&searchdb=scran

    While not much physical evidence remains, there is decent historical evidence that there was a strong Viking presence on the island. Therefore, physical evidence such as this is very valuable for backing up these historical claims.

    3) McDonald, R. Andrew and Somerville, Angus A. The Viking Age: A Reader, second edition. (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2014) [Online] Accessed via: https://b-ok.cc/book/3329612/62a90c

    A very useful collection of primary sources of throughout the Viking age I became very familiar with last semester. While the number that will be specifically and invaluably useful to me are not as much as I’d like, there are still a few sources in here that could be fairly useful, for example there is a lot of talk about raids on Iona in source 42.

  26. Annotated bibliography- Political conflict in the British government in the lead up to the Crimean war
    Primary sources

    1) Adjourned Debate on Mr. Roebuck’s Motion “Adjourned Debate on Mr. Roebuck’s Motion.” Norfolk Chronicle, 1855. https://link-gale-com.ezproxy-s1.stir.ac.uk/apps/doc/GR3218789538/BNCN?u=unistirl&sid=bookmark-BNCN&xid=bbb64f98. (Accessed 11 Feb. 2022.)
    This summary of the parliamentary debate featured in the Norfolk chronicle in 1855 details a member of the house recounting his experience near the front in Crimea and the conditions faced by soldiers. The reporting of this is incredibly illuminating not only by showing us the politics of the day. Parliament hearing this report is informative in of itself but importantly the fact it was reported in a regional newspaper reasonable far from London demonstrates the considerable influence of public opinions on the politics of the day.

    2) “Condensed Intelligence.” Reading Mercury, 30 Dec. 1854, p. 8. British Library Newspapers, https://link-gale-com.ezproxy-s1.stir.ac.uk/apps/doc/GW3226414317/BNCN?u=unistirl&sid=bookmark-BNCN&xid=a4dc6fff. (Accessed 11 Feb. 2022.)
    The Reading Mercury’s reporting on the war and especially its casualties are an informative source. It suggests an appetite in their readers for not only news of the war but also information on the nitty-gritty of the conflict. However, its focus on important wealthy and connected individuals demonstrates a slight romanticism of the war by papers in order to sell. This in of itself is useful as it tells us a lot about the public opinions, motivations and appetite for news of the day.

    3) COMMONS SITTING OF TUESDAY, DECEMBER 12, 1854. House of Commons Hansard
    This particular sitting heavily features a response to the queen’s speech delivered just before the sitting. The response while lengthy demonstrates the political motivations of the day as the speaker attempts to rally support for the war by exhibiting the valour of soldiers through reports from the front and the rally of the British people through varying acts of civic duty. The source quite handily demonstrates the government’s line.
    Secondary Sources

    1) Brown, David, Palmerstone A Biography. New Haven, Yale University Press, 2012
    Browns biography provides a good wide view lens into the life of Palmerstone and a good jumping-off point for further reading and narrowing down of a query. Providing much-needed context for the much shorter era of Palmerstone’s involvement in the lead-up to the outbreak of war in Crimea. Gives an excellent view into Palmerstone’s motivations, both statesman and partisan.

    2) Conacher, J. B. The Aberdeen Coalition 1852-1855: a study in mid-nineteenth-century party politics. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1968
    Conacher’s book serves as a gateway to the political machinations happening in the Aberdeen government in the lead-up to war. It serves to provide context for the decisions made by depicting the partisan and often petty factions and rivalries that coupled with the political climate led to Britain’s intervention into the Crimean War.

    3) Anderson Olive A Liberal State at War: English Politics and Economics During the Crimean War. London: Macmillan, 1967
    Anderson’s book is full of useful information of the politics taking place during the Crimean war but offers an understanding of the economic situation at various points throughout the duration of the war that is of incredible use. Economics is often an important driving factor in all political decisions and beginning to understand it is of paramount importance for understanding this era politically.

    1. Joseph, while it is good to look at the press and their reporting of the debate, it is probably best to start with The Times (so use the Times Digital Archive) Their reporter, W H Russell, was the first modern war correspondent and he exposed the conditions at the front in a series of articles – John Delane, the editor, then began a campaign attacking the incompetence of the army and the civil service, which was picked up and developed by Punch magazine (we have a complete run of Punch in hard copy in the library)
      It also led Charles Dickens to join a political movement (the only one he ever did!) – the Administrative Reform Association. The journal, where he attacked the government and the official inquiry, is digitised here: https://www.djo.org.uk/household-words.html. Olive Anderson’s essay on the ARA is here: https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/3825567.pdf and there are some excellent chapters on Dickens’ politics here: https://librarysearch.stir.ac.uk/permalink/44UST_INST/1t33jmq/alma991003213009706861

  27. Dissertation Topic: British minority groups in the First World War

    Primary Sources

    1. Photographs on the Western Front. The British West Indies Regiment In WW1 | Imperial War Museums (iwm.org.uk)

    The Imperial War Museum holds many photographs which I plan to use to show how black soldiers were treated. There is a photo of the West Indies regiment, in September 1916 where they all are smiling and looking ready to fight. However, by looking closely we can see that they are nowhere near the front line as the soldiers in the back are looking very casual. Therefore, highlighting that there is many interpretations and details to capture from the photographs.

    2.Walter Tull family archive. The Walter Tull Archive « Part of The Finlayson Family Archive

    The Water Tull family archive is a very useful place which I can get access to a variety of documents and photographs regarding Walter Tull, which alongside the secondary reading, I will be able to create a very clear study on him.

    3. It is not an exact source, but I hope to find a source regarding the manual of military law which could allow me to understand the rules which were in place regarding Europeans not being able to hold an officer’s position within the army.

    4.I would also like to find sources regarding the military cross and try examining why exactly Walter Tull was not given it, and still has not been awarded it.

    Secondary sources

    1.Vasili, Phil. “Walter Tull, 1888-1918: Officer, footballer: ‘All the Guns in France couldn’t wake me’”. Raw Press, 2009.

    I found this secondary source through the Bibliography of British and Irish History. This source will be very useful as it gives a clear insight into Walter Tull who I would like to focus on in my dissertation. Tull was from afro-Caribbean descent and went from being a professional footballer to joining the British Army and becoming an officer which went against laws and racist attitudes of the time. He is most celebrated for leading a group of troops into battle on the western and Italian fronts without losing a single solider. To this day, Walter Tull has not been fully celebrated for his bravery due to the colour of his skin.

    2. Bourne, Stephen. Black Poppies: Britain’s Black Community and the Great War. Cheltenham; The History Press, 2019. Print.

    I was made aware of this source through the black people in Britain module, resulting in me already understanding Bourne and the arguments which he creates.

    Like Vasili’s book, this source will give me more insight into the life of Walter Tull but also on other soldiers who fought in the First World War. I think this source will be a perfect starting point as it focuses on men from an African heritage and highlights the day-to-day issues and tragedies of life on the battlefield while fighting for their ‘mother country.’

    I think this source will fit my dissertation topic perfectly as it has been described as a “Powerful and revelatory counterbalance to the whitewashing of British History.”

    3. Olusoga, David. Black and British: A forgotten History.

    This source is a very recent book which I think will be a very useful as it will provide me with the most up to date arguments of this topic. I think this will be a very interesting, eye-opening book to read and will allow me to get a true insight onto how much of our world is how it is today because of the work and bravery of black people.

  28. Preliminary Dissertation Title: Changing Press Perceptions of Malcolm X in the United States from 1960-1970.

    Primary Sources
    The Albany News (Albany, Tex.), Vol. 83, No. 2, Ed. 1 Thursday, September 8, 1966, newspaper, September 8, 1966; Albany, Tex.. (https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth428938/: accessed February 11, 2022), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, https://texashistory.unt.edu; crediting The Old Jail Art Center.

    This newspaper presents a useful, white-aimed perspective from a town in the south which had seen an uptake in black people during the Great Migration. This being a local newspaper reporting on the death of Malcolm X highlights the media attention he received. It interties Malcolm X, alongside the Civil Rights radicals with Communists in China who were commenting on the death of Malcolm X.

    “Black Muslim Malcolm X Gives Messages to White America.” Jackson Advocate, Aug 17, ., 1963. https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn79000083/1963-08-17/ed-1/seq-1/.

    This newspaper presents a useful example of the black press’s perception of Malcolm X – however it is important to note that the Jackson Advocate were pro-segregation of white and black people, as well as pro black self-improvement, therefore making them likely more sympathetic with Malcolm X than other black press. Gives a useful account of the rhetoric of Malcolm X and his separate views from other black civil rights leaders. Important to contextualise this source with the work of other black press.

    “Malcolm X.” Evening Star, May 01, 1964. https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83045462/1963-05-01/ed-1/seq-4/.
    A newspaper aimed at the public of Washington D.C. More evidence that Malcolm X’s stances on Islam, criticism of other black civil rights leadership, and black self-improvement provide the basis of the media’s fascination with him during this period.

    Secondary Sources
    Mississippi Department of Archives and History. “Jackson Advocate.” Accessed Feb 02, 2022. https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/essays/1899/.
    This source is useful for its description of the Jackson Advocate, which is essential to understanding the papers support of Malcolm X. Explains why he so regularly features not just in their papers, but on the front page of their papers.

    Johnson, Terrence L. “Religious Heretic, Political Prophet: Malcolm X, Democracy, and Abolition Ethics.” Journal of Africana Religions 3, no. 1 (2015): 62–82. https://doi.org/10.5325/jafrireli.3.1.0062.

    This source provides a useful description of the ideology of Malcolm X and how it developed across his lifetime. The mentions of the nations of Islam while not in depth were also useful. It analyses his rhetoric and his relationship with liberalism, the nation of Islam and black nationalism, topics that come up in several the press articles covering him.

    Skrentny, John David. “The Effect of the Cold War on African-American Civil Rights: America and the World Audience, 1945-1968.” Theory and Society 27, no. 2 (1998): 237–85. http://www.jstor.org/stable/657868.

    Provides a possible explanation for some of the press representations on Malcolm X. Interesting that it mentions that Communist countries would use American racism as propaganda, which helps contextualize the American Press commenting on how Communists were talking about Malcolm X’s assassination.

    1. Dear Thomas –

      Well done on getting started on your bibliography – if you keep up the annotations, they will serve as building blocs for your dissertation’s scholarly literature overview!

      If you search for and read some scholarship on the methodology of media/press analysis, they should give you a few options of how you will be measuring their coverage of X. You need to be thinking about this now already, so you devise your system for measuring press coverage, and you will feed date into your rubrics as you analyse each article.

      As you are examining specific articles about X in the press, do start making a list of what they focus on in his life/legacy, and the ways in which they evaluate it (not only negatively or positively, but perhaps in more complexity).

      You also need to read about the history of the US press from the early 20th century through the last quarter of the 20th century. This should include discussions of not only national but also regional, and specifically African American newspapers as well.

      You will need to carefully figure out X’s position relative to at least two African American rights traditions/struggles: (the older leaders) Booker T. Washington’s self-help and respectability discourse, and W. E. B. DuBois’ (and the NAACP’s) more assertive civil rights campaigns. This will help you understand the coverage of X that you see in various black newspapers. Also, you do need to carefully consider where that newspaper is – if in the South, in a big city or in a more rural place – and how do the racial politics of that place influence the newspaper’s coverage of the black rights struggles?

      Your evaluation of your last source suggests that you may be interested in enlarging your study to also investigate non-US press coverage of X in his life and after. This would be a worthy endeavour. You do need to think carefully about this, because you may be able to access only English-speaking press due to language issues, as well as access to online press archives in Britain. Before you decide to include such non-Us press coverage, do some searching around, and you may also want to talk to Helen Beardsley: about accessing any online or in-person press archives in Britain; online archives in South Africa, India, and where else? Any English-speaking press from/by either the Soviet Union, the Eastern Bloc, African decolonizing countries, or in Western Europe?

      Some books that you may want to read on the politics of US civil rights reform in the Cold War, incl. the role of international press and propaganda, are:

      Mary Dudziak, Cold War Civil Rights: Race and the Image of American Democracy. American Council of Learned Societies, 2000.

      Thomas Borstelmann, The Cold War and the Color Line: American Race Relations in the Global Arena.Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001.

  29. Photography in the Western Front of ww1, from a British perspective, and its importance/evolution/impact
    Still in the process of finalising a topic.

    Primary Sources

    The National Archives:
    Photographs of aerial reconnaissance taken on the Western Front in the final year of the war. This demonstrates the use of photographic technology and how quickly it had been revamped for the military purpose of reconnaissance. This can be used to show how the use of photography had changed from the beginning of the war, i.e. uniformed portraits before leaving home, and private souvenirs.

    British Pathé:
    Reels from the British Pathé show civilians signing up for the army. In one clip military bands play while crowds gather to cheer on the recruits, while in another, banners reading ‘each recruit=quicker peace.’ This source will be useful in discussing the propagandistic side to photography, through the glorification of joining the army and serving ones country.

    Hughes, Thomas McKenny, ‘Private papers of Lieutenant T McK Hughes,’ IWM, Catalogue no. 12244:
    The source details that by 1917, every trench raid a soldier participated in could be expected to have been based on the latest aerial recconnaissance. I think this is a useful source, as it shows that elements of photography played a role in almost every front-line British soldiers life by the end of the war.

    Secondary sources

    Carmichael, Jane, First World War Photographers, London and New York: Routledge, 1989.:
    This book contains chapters that expain the origins of photography in the First World War and describe the process of how photography transformed throughout the war from primarily a hobby for momentos of ones personal life, to becoming an officially sanctioned job on the Western Front. From the source, I gather that the British army largely attempted to suppress unofficial photographers who could harm the public image of the war by capturing photos of the horrors of war, including the dead and wounded.

    Beckett, Ian F W, The Great Was, 1914-1918, Harlow: Pearson/Longman, 2007.:
    In Chapter 6, this book describes the evolution of aerial recconnaissance, detailing how by 1918, with the photographic technology made available, it was possible to capture aerial recconnaissance photos from as high up as 15,000 feet. Interestingly, it also notes that the primary function of fighter planes was often to defend friendly recconnaisance planes. This will be useful when discussing the functionality of aerial photography in the war.

    Jolly, Martyn, (2003). Composite propaganda photographs during the First World War. History of Photography, 27(2), pp.154-165.:
    This source describes the propaganda aspect of photography, and its use by Britain and other major forces in the war. It illustrates that like any other form of propaganda, photography was used as a way of maintaining public support at home, during the attrition in the trenches. It also highlights the struggle propagandists went through to strike the balance between legitimate photographs and staged ones. This source is useful, as it gives the perspective of domestic affairs.

    1. Very good secondary sources Connor – this reads like exactly the sort of approach with Jeremy Black recommends in his excellent ‘Rethinking Military History’ which you should use for both the assignments in 9X6. Also have a look at the chapter on WWI in John Taylor’s ‘War Photography’ which looks at the Press’s use of photographs.
      As for primary sources – perhaps use the National Army Museum’s online collections and the Imperial War Museum’s online collections before using material like Pathe.
      You probably want to decide whether to look at how the British military used photography (inc the novel art of aerial photography) to improve their tactics, or how the media and the govt used photography to maintain morale. Both perfectly viable topics.

  30. Dissertation Topic: The impact of Cold War politics on the Congo Crisis

    [Secondary Sources]

    1) Lise A. Namikas, Battleground Africa: the cold war and the Congo crisis, 1960-1965. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2013

    This book provides a detailed analysis of the Congo crisis, and how Cold War dynamics played out during it. It talks in depth about the involvement of several foreign players in the Congo crisis, especially the US and the Soviet Union, and how the politics of the Cold War affected foreign aid. It covers a lot of the complex issues within the crisis, as well as within the Cold War itself, and I think it will be useful starting point for my dissertation for this reason.

    2) Stephen R. Weissman, ‘What Really Happened in Congo: The CIA, the Murder of Lumumba, and the Rise of Mobutu’, Foreign Affairs 93, no. 4 (2014): 14-25 https://heinonline.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.journals/fora93&div=82&g_sent=1&casa_token=&collection=journals

    This article explores the extent of CIA involvement within the Congo crisis, and how this involvement was directly a result of Cold War politics. It also discusses how the CIA contributed directly to the disorder and collapse of the Congo in an attempt to steer the political climate to one more supportive and beneficial for the West. I think this is important for my dissertation as it is an interesting example of how Cold War dynamics played out in the Congo – that is, the efforts taken by the US to ensure the Congo was not communist.

    3) Alan James, ‘Britain, the cold war, and the Congo crisis, 1960-63’, The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 28, no. 3 (2000): 152-168 https://doi.org/10.1080/03086530008583103

    This article discusses the British response to the Congo crisis, particularly its efforts to protect its economic interests. In a Cold War context, this manifested through making sure the Congo didn’t fall into communist hands. I think this article will be useful as it shows another perspective of Western motivations and actions in the Congo during the Cold War.

    [Primary Sources]

    1) Chronicling America, Library of Congress https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/

    While not a specific source, this archive has digitized American newspapers up to 1963, many of which have articles on the Congo crisis between 1960-1963. This will be useful for my dissertation as it is an example of the representation of the crisis in American newspapers, and could provide evidence of public opinion regarding the crisis itself, and wider international actions within the Congo.

    2) UK Parliamentary Papers https://parlipapers.proquest.com/parlipapers/search/basic/hcppbasicsearch

    This also isn’t a specific source but I will be able to use this resource to look through British parliamentary record to find out what actions were taken during the Congo crisis, and perhaps to find evidence of opinions on the situation itself or motivations behind actions, as well as other records and useful primary sources. For example I have found a record of a United Nations Assembly in 1961 which discusses the Congo crisis and what measures should be taken in terms of aid.

    3) Department of State, ‘Congo 1960-1968’, Foreign Relations of the United States, 1964-68 Volume XXIII (Washington, 2013). Internet Archive. https://archive.org/details/pdfy-6zxEkM7lrlrpC2zk/page/n1/mode/2up

    This is a record of foreign relations between the US government and the Congo, including correspondence between the CIA in the Congo and the US government discussing the situation in the Congo between 1960-1968. For example, it includes correspondence from the CIA officers in the Congo detailing the UN forces arriving, and the political atmosphere and internal conflicts. I think this will be very useful primary source material for my dissertation.

  31. Primary Synopsis
    I want to look at how modern media, film, television, books etc. have influenced how we look at history, specifically Scottish Medieval History and the Jacobite rebellions, and how it has affected the heritage sector in Scotland.
    Through films such as Braveheart and Outlaw King, or television such as Outlander, the romanticisation of Scottish history has skewed the reality of those periods and while artistic license is important in telling stories, it can also perpetuate falsehoods surrounding the Wars of Scottish Independence for example. I also wanted to spend some time on why Scottish film and television is so important to the economy and heritage sector to give some context as to why these types of media are so popular and encouraged.
    Primary Sources
    I chose these sources to gain an insight into Scottish medieval history from a primary source as well as newspaper articles that have looked at the effects of tourism on Scottish heritage sites, as well as the report on the effects of the entertainment industry on Scottish tourism.

    Fordun, Johannes ˜de. Chronica Gentis Scotorum. Edinburgh: Edmonston and Douglas, 1871.
    Bower, Walter. Scotichronicon. 9 vols. Edited by D.E.R. Watt. Edinburgh: The Mercat Press, 1987-1997.
    Parliament, Scottish. Economy, Energy and Tourism Committee 4th Report, 2015: The Economic Impact of the Film, TV and Video Games Industries: APS Group, 2015.
    Potočnik-Topler, Jasna and Tjaša Špenko. “Film Tourism as a Tool of Tourism Development: The Representation of Scotland in the Outlander TV Series.” TIMS. Acta 13, no. 2 (2019): 79-88.
    White, Gregor. “Culloden Battlefield Access Road Gets Repairs Ahead of Tourist Season.” The Inverness Courier, 06-04-, 2019.

    Secondary Sources
    I have chosen these sources to give both a broad overview of the relevant Scottish history periods as well as a more focused look at areas such as the second war of Scottish independence as well as a report on how Scotland is viewed outside of Scotland, through the lens of cinema.

    Blaikie, Andrew. The Scots Imagination and Modern Memory. Epub. Edinburgh University Press. 2010
    Blockmans, Wim and P. C. M. Hoppenbrouwers. Introduction to Medieval Europe. English transl., repr. ed. London [u.a.]: Routledge. 2010
    Boardman, Steve and Susan Foran. Barbour’s Bruce and its Cultural Contexts: Politics, Chivalry and Literature in Late Medieval Scotland. Cambridge: D.S. Brewer. 2015
    Cowan, Edward J. A History of Everyday Life in Medieval Scotland. Aœ History of Everyday Life in Scotland. Vol. 1. Edinburg: Edinburg Univ. Press. 2011
    Education Scotland. Scotland in the World – how Others See Us in Film. Livingston: Education Scotland. 2021
    Goldstein, R. James. The Matter of Scotland: Historical Narrative in Medieval Scotland. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. 1993

  32. Annotated Bibliography
    This is a selection of the sources that can be used in my dissertation, British-Norwegian relations during the Second World War.

    Primary Sources
    The Appeal, August 23 1939, The British War Bluebook no. 128, Yale Law School
    The Appeal in “The British War Bluebook” describes the attitudes from Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Luxemburg, and Finland using Belgium as a mediator to pass on their message to maintain peace. The strength of this source is that it highlights the concerns that these nations had of the Great European Powers preparing for a war, and what stance should the minor powers take. Another strength is that it is a document part of the “British War Bluebook” a collection of national diplomatic documents, thereby would have been written by governmental sources.
    War Office: North West Expeditionary Force, Norway: Military Headquarters Papers, Second World War, 1940, War Office, WO 198, The National Archives
    The Archival documents on the North West Expeditionary and Norway: Military headquarters papers, give a timeline of the operations carried out by a joint force of Norwegian, British with help from the French and Polish troops, during the invasion of Norway by the Nazi Germany from the 9th of April to the 8th June 1940. The source covers the campaign in Norway from the military perspective, with the source being part of the War Office. These documents were used, to provide evidence of the deteriorating situation in Norway, that may have influenced on the decision made in the War Office. However, the source cannot be accessed online as it has not been digitised, hence the only way to access this information is to travel to the National Archives in Kew, London.

    Secondary Sources
    Herrington, Ian. “The SIS and SOE in Norway 1940-1945: Conflict or Co-operation”, War in History, Vol 9, No.1, (2002), 82-110
    The source written by Ian Herrington on the SIS and SOE in Norway provides details on the actions carried out by these groups in supporting the resistance movements in Norway, from the fall of Norway in 1940 to the end of the War in 1945. However, Herrington also described the internal conflict between the SIS and SOE. However, in Norway, this was less impactful to work that was carried out. Using evidence from the recently released Archives on the SOE to prove his argument that there was more cooperation than conflict between these organisations.
    Derry, T.K. History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series – The Campaign in Norway, (London, Her Majesty Stationery Office, 1952), http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/UN/UK/UK-NWE-Norway/index.html
    The Campaign in Norway written by T.K Derry in 1952 breaks down the events of the invasion of Norway, including the military plans for both Britain and Germany. The source also contains some primary documents, such as the instructions given to Commanders in Norway. The book also contains maps and photographs of the campaign, for example both British and German Air operations in Norway.
    Salmon, Patrick, Britain and Norway in the Second World War (London: HM Stationary Office, 1995).
    Patrick Salmon’s book on Britain and Norway in the Second World War provides a historiography for Norway from 1939 to 1945. The book is divided into five parts, starting with Norway neutrality all the way to the Liberation and post war Norway. Salmon also describes the relationship between the British and the Norwegians, for example the Norwegian Navy working in close cooperation with the British Navy to protect the merchant convoys to Britain in the Northern Atlantic.

    1. This is a good start, William.
      You should seek out the Documents of British Foreign Policy volume on Britain and Norway that I recommended (ed. by Salmon and Herrington), and also check whether there are any digitised primary sources in the National Archives in Kew (nationalarchives.org.uk). The documents you have here will on their own not be sufficient for the dissertation.
      You might then go on to reading this work, generating more secondary material from bibliographies and footnotes, but also searching Jstor and our library catalogue.
      I also recommended some work for the methodology paper – Trachtenberg’s book is probably the most important here. Try to think about where this would fit in Dr Cawood’s four mean approaches to the study of history, which he outlined in his lecture.

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